of the Jews in Neuern
Edited by the teacherJosef Blau, Neuern
Translation by Gisela Porges (Vienna,
Click here to access the original article in German
The town of Neuern (Czech Nýrsko) is located on
the headwaters of the River Angel, near the Bavarian border,
near a old hill-climbing, which linked already a thousand
years ago Bohemia with Bavaria and served especially the
In the 14th century the path was called “deutscher
path), then in the 16th century "Klattau - Vilshofener
between Klattau and Vilshofen).
To fortify and secure this ancient trade route at the entering of the hill-climbing
into the forest at the border the fortified church of Neuern and in 1300 Castle
Bayereck were erected.
At the same time as Bayereck the lords of Castle Bistritz, which is located in
a valley below the church of Neuern, founded a fortified town on a small island
in the Angel River. The town was so small, it was made up only of a big market
place and it lacked space for any narrow streets. This market place became the
modern Unterneuern (Lower Neuern)
The location was also duty place and the “german path” was
closed with this foundation at the point where it crossed
the raging torrent Angel.
About this new town we get the first news from a Latin
document dated from 1327. With
this document King John from Bohemia, the father of emperor
Charles IV gave his creditor Peter of Rosenberg, who had
already Castel Taus as security/pledge, also Castle Janowitz
with all its belongings and in addition the royal taxes
of the small town of Neuern. In the Latin-written document
the article regarding Neuern says:
". . . superaddentes eis insuper despeciali gratia thelonium in Oppido
diclo Nyrsko et ad ipsum regnumseu pertinebat Boemia pertinere poterat modo qualicumque ",
“... And in addition to this all out of special grace the tax of the
small town called Neuern, which also belongs to the kingdom of Bohemia, or in
some way belongs to it.”
Already in the 14th century in the city of Klattau, four hours of walking-distance
from Neuern, there were some Jewish families.
In a form from around 1385 we have got a document from
King Wenzel IV which pertain the cause of two Jews of Klattau:
these "servants of our royal chamber" there
are only named with their initials P and A.
From a Jewish settlement in the town Janowitz near Neuern we learn by 80 years
later. In a document the knight Ulrich of Janowitz sets the conditions under
which the Jew Baroch and his household are allowed to reside in Janowitz. The
writing in Czech language is from the 25th of April 1466 and states the following:
"I. . . announce that the Jew Baroch with his
servants and with his belongings may settle and remain
with me as long as he or I choose it. He shall give me
annually two Schock pennies (“Groschen”)
in interest, one on St. George’s Day the other
one on St. Gallus Day.
If he does not wish to remain longer and wish to support
himself under another master, with or without my knowledge
I promise him and his servants and his belongings three
miles of safe conduct.
Also I promise him that neither I nor my burgrave
neither one of my servants will force him to give money
or a loan of money.
If somebody owes this Jew money and does not
want to pay, so I or my burgave or somebody from the eldest
will force this person, to pay back the money with interests.
Even if one of my own people gives the Jew something in
pledge, an armor or a horse or a crossbow, nor I nor my
burgrave will force him to give the pledge back as
long as the money was not paid with interests or
something else was given to him as pledge. (…)
And above all this I give to the Jew and his servants
and his possession the same right, as other Jews in Bohemia,
in the cities of the Emperor and King and the gentlemen
have. This I will cherish and keep as a good Christian."
This correspondence from the year 1466 shows us under which
conditions the settlement of Jews on noble manors occurred
at this time. Therefore it is an example for the conditions
at a noble possession at Bistritz, which is close to Janowitz.
The town of Neuern stood under the protection of Bistritz,
which had like Janowitz an old but twice as strong Jewish
community which gained in elderly and recent times in many
different ways importance.
It is not known nor the exact year nor even the approximate
time in which the first Jewish families did settle in Neuern.
As in other western Bohemian towns and as in the nearby
Janowitz, which today is part of the Jewish community of
Neuern, the settlement of the Jews took part already in
the 15th century.
In Tachau actually even in the 13th century it is reported
there shall have been Jews. After 1500 there were already
Jews in Lub and Kydlin in Klattau, then in Plan and Haid
and already in 1530 the town of Wodnian received the right
from emperor Ferdinand, not to be obligated to tolerate
Jews inside their walls. The Towns of Klattau and Taus
as like as Pilsen had no Jews at all.
In Neuern Jews inhabited a special part of the town assigned
to them, the so-called “Judenwinkel” (Jews
angle or corner; in the vernacular called “Guunwingal”),
which was at the south-western end of the town and formed
The houses almost all have been built originally from the
authorities and had been their property; but soon one Jew
after the next bought his dwelling and it became hereditary
property and in the “Kataster” (land
register) from 1713 it is said from already 13 houses that
they were “hereditarily bought” and only from
5 “Chaluppen” that they belonged to
Of these 18 Jewish houses from 1713 already 17 stand together
in the ghetto, only one was outside the town beyond the
river. Moreover there was another Jewish house in Upper
Neuern, away from the main road or church road or – as
it was called earlier – away from the market.
First the Jews partly were dispersed in the various “Winkel”(corners)
outside of (…) Lower Neuern but still lived
inside the moat.
From the old cadastral registers we learn like the authorities
after the Thirty Years War were anxious to displace the
dwelling place of all Jews in their quarter. Doing this
they ceded the desire of the church, who wanted to isolate
Christian and Jewish population from one another because
she feared for the salvation of her believers (…).
According to the particularity of the Jewish houses they
also had a different numbering. When the numbering
of houses was introduced in 1771 in
all the habsburgian Länder, Jewish houses
got Roman numerals, while Christian houses got Arab ones.
(Because Jewish houses where not suited for military
quartering, for which the numbering of the houses was created.)
The Jewish house situated outside Neuern got no. I, the
houses in the Jewish Winkel got the numbers II
The Jewish house in Upper Neuern got no I.
The oldest messages on the Neuern Jews go back to 1618.
In the official "Judenfassion" of 1724,
the ancestors of the Jews living in Neuern where cited,
when they have already lived in Neuern at this time (1618).
Here we read the names:
Jonas Windspach with his sons David and Jacob and his daughter
Mayer Bloch with his sons Lazar and Moyses
J. Mützl, who had only a daughter.
Elias Hon (Hahn =
cock) from Schütthofen married her and came to Neuern.
Abraham Zarpath with his son Wolf
Salomon Arson with a son of the same name, but whom he
From the period before 1618, only the
Bloch family remained in Neuern.
This family increased
in such a way that it became the largest and for our town
downright representative Jewish family and therefore Neuern
playfully often was called “Blochowitz”.
We can assume that this worldwide extended family can call
our town their original home.
In writings from 1670 the (then already deceased) "Jew
Daniel" from Neuern is mentioned. He left a big
From the year 1694, we learn from a writing from the archive
of the Ministry of Interior the names of the Neuern Jews
Samuel Neumark and Herschl.
Both were the guardians of
the orphans after Nathaniel Neuern.
More detailed and organized information about Neuern Jewish
families and houses we learn only after 1700. This information
however does not come from the Jewish community itself,
as it lost all its recordings/chronicles in two big fires
in 1798 and in 1861. We owe this information the ambitions
of the State to have an overview over the tax-capacity
of the Jews and – on the other hand – its efforts
of limiting the number of Jewish families.
For the first goal a list of Jewish families was composed
in 1713, which was added to the old cadastre of the reign
of Bistritz (in the Landesarchiv of Prague).
the second goal the already mentioned Judenfassion from
1724 and the “Familiantenbuch” from
1800 was created.
This book recorded the holder of the
23 “Familienstellen” (family posts)
which were fixed in the year 1800 with all their ancestors
and offspring. (Both in the archive of the Ministry of
Interior in Prague).
Map of Lower NEUERN
(Black = Jewish houses, “Judenwinkel”)
More news mainly comes from the old cadastral registers
(at the Bezirksgericht/county court Neuern), the
archives of the town of Neuern and the rule of Bistritz.
The Old Jewish Houses of Neuern
The Neuern ghetto (see map) is a complex of buildings
built by authority according to a plan. Almost all the
Jews of the town were settled here by authority and the
houses became Jewish property through acquisition
Originally, the wooden Jewish houses, pushed close together
in a triangular space, with the main entrance between
houses XVII and XVI, were always closed
at night by a chain (Eruv). After this chain the house
no. XVI (no. 132 new), on which the chain hung, in the
vernacular is still called "beim Kettenjuden" (at
the Jew with the chains).
The Roman house numbers were only given in 1771. Previously
the houses (in documents) were described
by the indication of its two neighbours. However, because
the owners of neighbouring houses changed frequently,
the method is rather inaccurate for us today. The attached
drawing shows the construction level about 1800, when the
temple no longer stood at XI, but (as is today) at V
instead of the Wünschbach
House. On the other hand, the map shows
house no. XVIII which extended far into the main road.
It formed a heavy traffic barrier and therefore after the
fire of 1861 was not permitted to be rebuilt.
Houses II and III are separated by a narrow road. It
can no longer ascertain today if this existed earlier or
if it was only opened after the 1798 fire to facilitate
the access to the synagogue.
on the plan are identified with two numbers, with
Roman numbers from 1771 and Arab numbers from 1880. However,
the houses which were never given new numbers – their
locations today are empty sites or sheds – are
only marked with the old Roman numbers.
Aside from the old Jewish town, across the river, there
was the house no. I (now 159), which originally had been
a Christian house and only after its acquisition by Simon
Ploch in the year 1707 was liberated from the obligation
of military quartering, a burden that only Christian houses
had to bear. The possession of a “Judenhaus” always
was always combined with a seat at the synagogue, a place
at the cemetery (…) normally also the right of free
trade and slaughtering. (…) These
conditions are found in each sales contract of
Jewish houses in the Neuern cadastre.
In earlier periods of war and
peace, Jewish houses of Neuern shared the severe fate
of the whole town. Two large fires are reported in recent
times ; in both of them the Jewish temple and school were
On September 6th of 1798 through "a clap
of thunder”, as
it was called in the ancient reports, 7 Christian houses
along with 6 full barns and with the whole year’s Fechsung (?) and
4 taxable Jewish houses, further 13 non taxable Jewish
houses and 2 synagogues burned down entirely and the damage
amounted to 21,476 Gulden and 30 Kreuzer. The then present
synagogue was only finished a year before and there has
been also the old temple.
The archive of Bistritz from this time shows petitions
of people who lost everything in the fire (“Abbrändler”)
for getting construction timber at a reduced price together
with its positive execution.
On August 1st 1861, a second
fire broke out – again in the Judenwinkel.
The temple, the school and seven houses were
The Jewish Houses of Neuern
as far as they were marked with Roman numbers (from
I (159). Simon Plach (Simon Bloch, Schimbl Plach) from
no. XVII buys 1707 the upper, against the stone bridge located side of the
house, for 90 Rhenish Gulden from Georg Irlwekh, townsman and tailor. The year
before, Simon Bloch had married his wife Beyle. His father was Herschl,
his grandfather Lazar and his great-grandfather was Mayer Bloch (already a
resident in Neuern before 1618
, ancestor of the extensive Bloch family).
1746 house no. I goes to
1767 David Salomon’s heirs, then Nathan
1785 Salomon Bloch, who pays 15 Gulden protection tax/interest
1788 Samuel Fleischl buys the house. Anton Fleischl. Berthold
Fleischl. When purchased by Simon Bloch (1707) the former house of a citizen
was liberated from the burden of military quartering (…).
II (142). Obaure (also written Droura and Twere), widow of
Selik Ploch, 1727 bought from the authority for 34 Gulden the little house
at the corner (“Häusl am Eck”), semidetached with
the little house of Löb Simon. Her husband Selik Ploch (his father Moses
Bloch, 1639) was a grandson of the ancestor Mayer Bloch (before 1618). This
house was inherited in 1745 by her son Jacob Küberl, later Isak Janowitzer,
1815 Wolf Janowitzer who paid 17 Gulden protection tax.
Wenzl Krizek, George,
then Katharina Hamperl, Gustav Wallisch. Anna Wallisch.
III (141). In the year 1713 the house was leased by Samuel
Bloch with his wife Minkerl. He was a brother of the Simon Plach of no. I (from
In the year 1718 he bought half the house from the authority.
1746 Löb Simon,
1753 his son in law Wolf Joll with his wife Bele.
1815 Gabriel Ploch, who paid annually 10 Gulden protection
Löbl Ploch, Joel Klauber, Jakob Sicher, Anton Klauber. Anton and
Theresia Klauber. Therese Klauber.
IV (139) was originally one half of no. III.
In 1718 Moyses
Schmule Plach buys it from authority.
1753 it is passed to his son Moses Schmule
1785 "Schaya House" uninhabited.
Fleischmann pays 15 Gulden protection tax.
Anton Klauber, Therese Klauber.
V 1618. Jannos (Jonas) Windspach.
1646 David Windspach.
it is written in the land register : This house which he had from his father
and ancestor for 50 years was sold for 40 Gulden to Löbl Windspach (by
1702 Lebel Winschbach married his wife Schönel.
the son Josef to his son David Wünschbach, from him to David Janowsky.
1797 the Jewish community buys the house for the edification of a Betschule (synagogue)
and pays annually 10 Gulden protection tax.
1798 it burned down completely,
VI. Empty building site, now a garden, next to the Temple
Salomon Simon Windspach bought the place, which he paid cash, built construction
lumber from the Chodenschlosser woods and let construct the house (“Chaluppe”).
(his father Isak 1636, his grandfather Jonas Windspach before 1618, his wife
Esther from Horaschdowitz since 1692).
The Jew Meller of Kolinetz, married
since 1658 with Ryffka (sister of Moses Bloch  and daughter of the ancestor
Mayer Bloch [before 1618]), had two sons, Jacob and Josef Meller. Jakob married
in 1703 Rosina (from Blowitz) and Josef married in 1711 Frauet (from Kuttenplan).
Both brothers bought this house and shared it.
1743 Josef Meller sold his half
for 80 Gulden to Elias Klaaber,
1746 another Klaaber (first name unknown) bought
the second half.
1770 the half of Elias came to his heirs Herschl Elias and
Salomon Elias Klaaber, from these to Samuel Abraham Janowitz.
Klauber paid from his half (VI a) 7 ½ Gulden ground rent, Elias Klauber
(son of Sara Klauber) the same basic rate for VI b.
1850 the whole house
is sold on auction by Isak Janowitzer to the Jewish community.
VII (137). Place where
there was a fire, now a garden.
Zaparth, his son Wolf Zaparth (1655), Wolfs daughter Radisch
1708 Salomon Abraham from Rabi.
official channel for 50 Gulden the manorial little house
in the Judenwinkel of
Neuern between Joachimb Hann and Jakob Melech (Meller)
was given to him”. He paid annually 10 Gulden protection
1742 the house was passed to his son Schmula Abraham
Janowitz (1771 and 1784 called the "junger
1800 Samuel Janowitzer, David Porges.
1815 Joachim Ploch, Moritz Bloch.
About 1880 Wenzl and
Katharina Schwarz (Ruaße).
About 1890 it burns down,
then demolished. Jewish community.
VIII (together with IX: 136).
the rabbi, the former Judenschule (Synagogue).
Before 1618 Jakob J. Mützl, whose daughter Esther
1658 marries Elias Hon from Schüttenhofen. Before
1713, his son Joachim married Hennele of Mühlhausen.
After the death of Joachim she got the little house for
50 Gulden from the authority.
house was already divided by Elias and Meier Hann, 1771
the two halves were marked with the numbers VIII and IX.
1815 Enoch Hahn holds both parts and pays annually 15 Gulden
protection tax. Salomon Hahn. Jewish Community.
IX. Together with VIII today the house
no. 136, dwelling house of the rabbis, property of the
About 1750 the old house was divided
and no. IX received Meier Hann.
1785 (…) Jakob Juda.
1815 under Enoch Hahn both halves were reunited after more
than sixty years separation. Salomon Hahn. Jewish community.
X. Shed of the dead carriage. The oldest
known owner of this house is Salomon Simon, who married
in 1692 Esther from Horaschdowitz (his father Isak, his
grandfather Jonas Winschbach from house no. V). His son
1746 Lasserin (wife or daughter of a person
1759 the widow Zapartin,
After the fire of 1798, the place was bought
by the Jewish community and later the
shed for the dead´s
carriage was erectedthere. Jewish community.
Xl. Space against the River Angel, formerly
After the fire of 1798 which also destroyed
the synagogue, no longer used since 1797, the
place was cleared and has been free space since then.
XIIa (135). Dwelling house.
Küberl, who died 1769 the brothers Seligmann and Moses
inherited the house. (1770 they took the name Ploch from
their great-great-grandfather Meier Ploch.)
half was inherited 1785 by Israel Ploch.
1815 his descendent
Küberl Ploch paid 6 Gulden protection tax.
Bloch. Wenzel and Anna Kollroß.
XIIb (134). In the year
1769 Moses Ploch inherited this part of the house, but
it was too small for him. Therefore he in 1775 he bought
2 square Klafter from the town (for 16 Gulden, and
8 Kreuzer annually building site tax) and extended the
1815 Moses Ploch, 6 Gulden protection tax, Josef,
afterwards Bernard Bloch. Bernard and Marie Bloch. Josef
XIII (133). Dwelling.
1724 Meier Salomon,
1746 Mayer Moyses, 1759 Abraham Joll Romerl, 1785 Joel
Abraham, then Judah Klauber,
1803 the house was inherited
by Sara Klauber.
1815 Joel Klauber paid 15 Gulden protection
tax. 1821 it goes to David Klauber. Abraham Klauber, Josef
and Amalie Klauber, Gustav Klauber, Franz Blaschek.
XIV, formerly one half of a house, now a shed.
Salomon Aron, then his son with the same name.
1693 Josef Österreicher
from Zebau near Weseritz married Hanele, daughter of David Winspach.
purchased from Strasserin (wife or daughter of a Strasser) her half
of a Chaluppe next to Salomon Simon.
1724 Josef Österreicher sold this
half house to Salomon Abraham.
1746 Josef Österreicher.
1759 Rauschy or
1785 the rabbi lives here.
1797 Samuel Janowitzer “der Prager”,
later called “der alte Prager”, sold it to Juda Klauber
and his son David.
1815 David Klauber paid 15 Gulden protection money.
1880 the house came to the neighbour’s house 133 of Joseph Klauber, now
XV. Former Dwelling, now courtyard of
1718 it was inherited by Salomon Simon (Sabel)
Bloch, inherited from his father Lazar; before Leonhard
Schwarz had lived there.
1785 the widow Lasserin,
1815 Moyses and Samson Fleischl
(15 Gulden protection tax)
Now at house no. 132 of Sigmund
and Berta Bloch.
XVI (132), Dwelling.
1670 and 1692 Herschl Plach (grandson of Meyer Bloch "before
1618"). Wens Salomon.
1705 the house is bought by “Neidlwirt” (also
called “neuer Wirt”= new innkeeper)
and David Simon for 150 Gulden.
1706 David Simon marries
Schönle from Horaschdowitz. He was a son of Isak and
a grandson of the ancestor Jonas Windspach.
1759 Sandl or Daniel Simon.
1788 to Daniel Simon, also
called Bergner, then to Salomon Porges (also written
Bories and Purias).
The house had a vault and a grocery.
One half of the vault belonged to Avigail
Porges in the Frischmann's house at the Jewish “Tandlmarkt” at
Salomon Porges around 1815 paid 15 Gulden protection tax.
Löbl Bloch. Daniel Bloch. Siegmund and Berta Bloch.
XVII (140). Dwelling.
1686 and yet in 1718 Maier Plach, a grandson of Mayer Bloch
(before 1618). His wife Beyle, son Daniel, then Samuel
Joachim, 1746 Samuel Joachim’s daughter "the
Black Jewess", 1748 her son in law Salomon Simon (…).
1786 from Markus Salomon to Daniel Löbl Markus.
Josef Jeiteles, 1815 Gabriel Bloch pays annually 15 Gulden
Moyses Kleiner, Bernard Bloch. Josef and
Amalie Bloch. Alfred and Gisela Bloch.
XVIII. Dwelling, which until 1861 stood
at the current street, across from the former (…)
1732 Josef Österreicher and Hanna Wünschbachin.
1739 Chaim Österreicher, 1746 Maier Abraham Janowitzer,
wool wholesalers, feathers and cereals.
1794 to his
brother Samuel Abraham Janowitzer.
1815 David Porges, 15
Gulden protection tax. Since then, this house was
extended into the street in a way a carriage could scarcely
pass ; it was removed after the fire in 1861. Street.
In Upper Neuern
I. (14). Before 1618 until after 1643, the owner was Abraham
Zaparth; 1655 his son Wolff, 1703 the house was taken
by Joachim Johl (Joel) ; after him, it was owned by his
widow Mory (Marie), who got married in 1723 to Maier
1746 the son from first marriage, Joachim Joel,
gets the house of his father for 200 Gulden. He buys
the location at the market between Schenern Augustin
(now Haas) and Ratich (now Blau), where later Hermann
Bloch built the commercial building no. 15. Later, the
heirs of Samuel Abraham Janowitz purchased the house
by auction. They sold the house for 700 Gulden to the
brothers Samuel and Jakob Moyses. Samuel Moyses´ widow
Treindl sold it to Naftali Bloch, called Hirsch or Harsch,
who was a “Schutz – and Handelsjud” at
Neuern, son of Joachim Bloch, who died before 1815.
1815 Amalie Bloch, 10 Gulden protection
1870 Hermann Bloch.
1900 David and Henriette Bloch.
Since there is no accurate and complete
recording of the numerous changes of ownership of the
Neuern houses and the frequent change of families in the
town and at the houses – even in the land register
not all cases are reported – it is impossible to
set up a complete list of house owners nor to connect families
with (special) houses. Therefore it is not possible either,
to create a connection without gaps between the inhabitants
of Neuern of 1713 and the “Familianten” (jewish
families living on a Familienstelle – an authorised
jewish home) of 1800. It is only when the now unsorted
and inaccessible archive of Bistritz will be made useable
that it will be possible for researchers to find the
missing links, to fill the gaps of this work and correct
any possible discrepancies.
The Jewish Families of Neuern
A) The families of 1713 and 1724.
The following text lists the families mentioned in
the land register (Kataster) of 1713. For each
family it is (…) mentioned its ancestry. The families
from the Judenfassion, for which no connection with families
from 1713 were found, or who came to Neuern later are listed
at the end. It seems that families at that time migrated
more than today.
1. Salomon Daniel, from the house of Simet, 51, his Wife Estera
48, sons: Markus 22, Lebel 2, daughters: Hora 20, Veigel 16 years.
On his heritage
property, pays the authority 15 Gulden, contributes (?) 50 Gulden, trades in
wool, feathers, etc., and gains (through reported spending) about 150 Gulden.
Is born in town.
1724 he is mentioned as Salomon Simon.
1737 he is mentioned
again and his father, who had been over a hundred years
old and has been a resident of Neuern for a many years.
He had bought a small house in Neuern in 1669.
Daniel Salomon had lent money to the municipality of
Neuern. ("Up to 50 Gulden …")
and hadn’t received any interests. He was – by
way of exception – in possession of a citizen’s
Solomon Simon (Daniel) was married since 1692 to Esther
from Horaschdowitz. His father was David Winschbach (1646
self-employed), his grandfather Jonas Windspach, who had
already settled in Neuern before 1618. Salomon Daniel
(Simon) in 1713 was next to his brother David Simon, one
of the most highly taxed Neuern businessmen.
Note:The spelling of surnames here follows
the original document. Names had no defined spelling and
the names Windsbach, Bloch, Hahn and were almost
every time were written differently, just as their writer
2. Josef Österreicher, from the house
of Levi, 48, wife Anna 45, sons: Isaac 20, Jonas 17, daughter
Bayerle 11 years. Has his in hereditary possession bought
Chaluppe, deals with cloth, wool, feathers, linen; pays
authority 15 Gulden, contributes 28 Gulden, beyond that
gains about 109 annually. Has been a resident of Neuern
for 24 years.
1724: The house (No. XIV) before 1618 belonged to Salomon
Aron, after him his son with same name; whose child (???…)
that’s why Josef Österreicher took its place.
He hail from Zebau near Weseritz and 1693 had married Hanele,
the daughter of David Windspach from Neuern. He hawks with
3. Salomon Abraham, from the house of Abraham, 38, wife Rosina
38, son Wolf 8, daughter Clara 11 years. Lives on a herrschaftliche Chaluppen,
trades with feathers, leather and cloth, pays 10 Gulden, contributes 15 Gulden,
beyond that gains annually about 80 Gulden, lives in Neuern since 14 years.
1724: The house (VII) before 1618 belonged to Abraham Zaparth, 1655 Wolf Zaparth
got it, thereafter his son, 1708 whose daughter Radisch married Samuel Abraham
from Hroby near Tabor.
4. David Simon, from the house of Simon, 43, wife Rosina,
35, son Daniel 4, daughters: Vögele 14, Rosine 11, Feyle 3, Esther 6 years.
Has bought his hereditary Chaluppen, trades in wool, feathers, fabric and cattle.
Pays 15 Gulden taxes, contributes 50 Gulden, beyond that gains
annually another 215 Gulden. Born here. 1724: Since 1706 the husband of Schönle
from Horaschdowitz (Schönle = Rosina?), The same lineage as his brother’s
Salomon Daniel. House XV.
5. Moisis Mayerle, from the house of Jakob, 57, wife Belle
48, son Samuel 24, daughters: Hendl 9, Marie 8 years. Has bought his own hereditary
Chaluppen, deals with cloth, fabric, feathers, pays authority 15 Gulden, contributes
6 Gulden, beyond that gains 70 Gulden. Born here.
He is no longer mentioned in 1724; perhaps did he
emigrate or die in the meantime.
6. Lebel Winschbach, from the house of
Moyses, 42, wife Schendl 25, son Josef 13, daughters: Reßel
16, Vögele 9, Nikele 6 years. Has bought his hereditary
Chaluppen, deals in haberdashery goods, is also a butcher,
pays authority 15 Gulden, contributes 7 Gulden, beyond
that gains 63 Gulden, born here. 1724: “Has established
himself in 1702”, married Schönl, father David
Winschbach (1646), grandfather Jonas Windspach (before
1618 already in Neuern). House V.
7. Simon Bloch, from the house of Jakob,
40, wife Beile 34, sons: Meier 11, Herschel 1 1/2, daughters:
Vegele 9, Schendl 5, Esther 3 years. Has bought his
Chaluppen, trades in wool, feathers and various dry goods
(“cramerey”), pays 15 Gulden, contributes 30
Gulden, acquires beyond that 104 Gulden, born here.
1724: Has settled with his wife Beyle in 1706. Father Herschl
Bloch (1670), grandfather Lazar Bloch (1639), great-grandfather
Mayer Bloch (before 1618). (See 15, his brother Samuel
Bloch.) His mother, widow of Herschl Bloch, lives with
him "in der Herwerckh". (house no. XVII).
8. Joachim Samuel, from the house of Simet, 43, wife Maria
40, sons: Simon 9, Isak 6, daughters: Riffkele 15, Schendel 11, Gittel 4 years.
On a manorial Chaluppen, deals with horses, pays authorities
15 Gulden, contributes 3 Gulden, gains beyond that 50 Gulden;
resides here since 19 years. 1724: Is not mentioned.
9. Selig Bloch, from the house of Levi,
52, wife Twere 32, sons: Lazar 22, Mausche 10, Joachim
Jakob 1/2, daughters: Esterle 5, Feyl 3 years. On a herrschaftliche
a leather merchant and a butcher, pays 15 Gulden, contributes
3 Gulden, gains beyond this 50 Gulden; born here.
1724: Father Moses Bloch (1639), grandfather Mayer Bloch
(1618). Married 1694 Droura (can be read also Twere and
Obaure), “hawks with feathers'. House no. II.
10. Joachim Hon, from the house of Levi, 33, wife Hendel 35,
sons: Eyßig 7, Ely 1/2, daughter Esther 4 years. On a herrschaftliche Chaluppen,
is a butcher, pays 15 Gulden, contributes 9 Gulden, Gains beyond this 75 Gulden.
1724: Father is Elias Hon from Schüttenhofen who married
in 1658 Esther, the daughter of J. Mützl, who was
a resident of Neuern before 1618. Joachim Hann married
1713 Hanele from Mühlhausen. House no. VIII.
11. Samuel Abraham, from the house of Ruby, 35, wife Minka
25, sons: Schime 6, Salomon 6, daughter Cheile 4 years. On its own Chaluppen,
trades with linen and cloth, pays 15 Gulden, contributes 31 Gulden. Gains beyond
this 78 Gulden. Lived there for half a year.
1724: Schmule of Hroby, brother of Salomon Abraham of Hroby
near Tabor (see under 3.), “hawks with feathers (..)”.
12. Jakob Kopel, from the house of Simet, 42, wife Frometl
38, daughter Reßel 10 years. Has his own Chaluppen, pays 15 Gulden, contributes
2 Gulden, deals with wool and feathers, gains beyond that 30 Gulden. Born here.
1724: Not mentioned.
13. Samuel Joachim, from the house of Simet, 26, wife Belle
28, son Isak 3, daughter Esther 5 years. Has its own Chaluppen, deals in haberdashery
goods, pays 10 Gulden, contributes 9 Gulden, gains beyond that 75 Gulden. Resident
of here since 3 years
1724: Father Daniel Simon, Mother Feigel, daughter of Isak
Winschbach (1636), maternal grandfather Jonas Windspach
hand (before 1618).
14. David, from the house of Levi, 26, wife Minka 22, has
its own Chaluppen, deals with various things (“Cramerey”), pays
10 Gulden, contributes 6 Gulden, gains beyond that 50 Gulden, resident of here
since 2 years.
1724: Not mentioned.
15. Samuel Ploch, from the house of Simet,
33, wife Minka 22, has its own Chaluppen, pays 10 Gulden,
contributes 6 Gulden, gains beyond that 40 Gulden, is a
butcher, born here.
1724: settled 1706, wife Minkerl, same descent as his brother
Simon Bloch (no. 7), house no. II. Note: "Both brothers
trade in feathers and various little things."
16. Chayle Witib, 48, son Leb Moyses 16, daughters: Vikele
18, Lidmille 15, Plimele 12, Beyerle 9 years. On a herrschaftliche Chaluppen,
pays 15 Gulden, contributes 0. Deals with leather, feathers, gains 25 Gulden.
1724: Not mentioned.
17. Salomon Ploch, from the house of Levi, 46, wife Chaile
35, son Lazar 21, daughters: Belle 13, Selde 8 1/2, Libele 5 years. Has its
own Chaluppe, pays 15 Gulden taxes, contributes 5 Gulden, deals with wool and
feathers, gains 40 Gulden.
1724: Married since 1694 with Feyle; goes peddling in feathers
and other small trade. Belle serves at Bistritz. Father:
Lazar Bloch, son of Mayer Bloch (before 1618).
18. Abrahamin Witib, 36, sons: Joachim 14, Mayerle 10,
Abraham 7 years. On its own Chaluppe, pays 10 Gulden, contributes 11 Gulden,
deals with feathers, gains 40 Gulden. 1724: Not stated.
19. Samuel Abraham, from the house of Isak, 44, wife Hora
30, daughter Gele 5 years. A schoolmaster/teacher, is paid by the Jewish community
annually 30 Gulden, lives here since 2 years; item.
20. Lebel Herschel, from the house of Levi, 23, wife Schendel
22, daughter Vögele 6 months. Schoolmaster/teacher, lives here since 5
years and get also paid by the Jewish community with annually 30 Gulden.
(…) 1724: Samuel Joachim Peck from Prague (since
1720 in Neuern) was schoolmaster, wife Sara from Neustadtl,
children: Abraham Alexander 1, Feyle 5 years. He lived
in the house of Salomon Simon.
The Judenfassion of 1724 lists
yet the following families:
Jakob Meller, settled here in the year 1705, wife Rosina
from Blowitz, children: Judelle 9, Mayer 5, Eva 13 years.
Josef Meller, settled here in the year 1711, wife Frauet
from Kuttenplan. Daughters: Rosina 11, Hanele 14 years.
Both brothers (are living) in a small house (and) are peddling
in feathers. (House no. VI, now building site beside the
temple.) Mother: Ryffka, granddaughter of the ancestor
Mayer Bloch from 1618, married in 1658 the Jew Meller from
Abraham Bend from Bieschin, 1714 independent, wife Rikl
- daughter of Mayer Windspach, daughter Merl 6 months.
Peddles in feathers.
Löbl Simon from Langendörffl, since 1720 independent,
wife Judele - daughter of Schmule from Neuern –,
daughter Beyla 3 months. Peddles in “purchasing of
the feathers”. With him lives the mother of his wife,
Resl, and her sons: Moyses 16, Abraham 10 years.
In Upper Neuern (Kataster 1713): Salomon Daniel,
from the house of Simet, 51 years. His wife Esthera 48
years old. Sons: Markus 22 years, Cabrl 2 years. Daughters:
Hora 20 years, Prigela 16 years. Lives in his heritage
property house, pays authoritiy 15 Gulden, contributes
50 Gulden. Trades with wool, feathers, etc. Earns 150 Gulden.
Was born here.
1724: Since 1703 Joachim Johl and then his widow Mory,
who in 1723 married Mayer Löbin from Biowitz. She
has a maidservant from Radochov, Feyel, 14 years old. "lives
from the purchasing of feathers, peddling.”
Village Millik (1724):
Moyses Joachimb from Deschenitz, since 1723, wife Rickel
- daughter of Maier Plach from Neuern, son Joachim 3,
daughter Rosina 5 years. "Peddles in the villages.”
Village Bistritz (1724):
Abraham Jakob, born at Gisternitz (Jistebnitz near Tabor),
was some years distiller at Chudenitz, since 1702 married
with Esther from Schwihau. Son Alexander 2, daughters:
Miedl 13, Rachl 10, Blumb 5 years. Servant Keckl
from Lipkau 22 years. Maidservant Beyla, daugther of
Salomon Bloch from Neuern, 16 years. Is distiller at
Bistritz and trades somewhat with feathers.
In Deschenitz in 1713 there were four Jewish houses, assembled
in a block on the north side of the marketplace in the
western corner next to the inn.
In these houses lived the
following four Jewish families:
1. Joachim Samuel, from the house of Simet,
age 56, his wife Jachet 56, son Jonas 21, daughters: Berl
16, Barke 13, Riffke 10, Schönle 2 years. Lives on
his own, from authority bought Chaluppen, deals with fabric
and other various goods, pays 19 Gulden
30 Kreuzer, contributes 26 Gulden, beyond that he gains 90
Gulden, has been there for almost 30 years.
2. Adam Israel, from
the house of Simet, age 50, wife Eva 50, sons: Israel 28,
Jacob 26, Moyses 24, Josef 22, Löbel 20, Laibe 18,
Dovidt 16, Solomon 14, Daughter Lißel 9 years, is
a distiller, deals with fabric and other various goods.
Pays 350 Gulden, contributes 19 Gulden, acquires about
that other 50 Gulden.
3. Salomon Moses, from the house of Simmet,
42, wife Estera 28, daughter Marian 12 years. Lives in
his own, from authority bought Chaluppe, deals with linen,
leather, feathers, pays 14 1/2 Gulden, contributes 8 Gulden,
earns about that yet another 50 Gulden, has lived there
4. Josef Mayerl, from
the house of Levi, wife Feygel, lives on its own, from
authority bought Chaluppe,
deals with linen, feathers, wool, contributes 8 Gulden,
pays 14 ½ Gulden, earns about that yet another 50
Gulden, has lived there for 9 months.
The authorized families of 1799
In 1799, a certain
number of Jewish families for each dominion was fixed
by the government ; it was controlled and not
to be exceeded, because there was a constant increase
of Jewish families.
Within each dominium, the post for Jewish families were
distributed on the locations where Jews had already settled.
The families of the Bistritz dominium started with the
country’s number begin 5143, so that each
family had a country’s and a dominium´s number.
In 1799, in the area of Bistritz, there where 96 such "family
posts" or "Familianten", and they
were mainly distributed between Neuern, Janowitz, Drosau,
Deschenitz and Braunbusch. Neuern had the posts no. 11 – 29,
then 64, 78, 80 and 81 : altogether 23 authorized families.
Most Jews had Drosau with 24 posts, followed by Neuern
with 23, Janowitz with 10, Deschnitz with 9, Braunbusch
with 3 and Bistritz with 2 posts. The remaining families
were divided upon smaller places.
Post 11: Fleischel Samuel (his parents:
Abraham Moises and Rachel David). Spouse: Barbara Ploch.
Of the sons Samson (born 1791) received the post, Daniel
(born 1794) received the post 15 after Salomon Klauber,
Abraham (born 1799) "the same" and David (born
1801) was got in 1827 the permit of emigration to Hungary
(…). Samson wed in 1816 with Sara Kohner and had
the sons Jakob, Abraham, Ignaz, David, Moritz, Leopold
and Markus (twins) and Philipp.
Post 12: Ploch Sara (widow
of Samson Ploch), parents unknown. Married 1765, died 1818,
sons: Abraham, Moises.
Post 13: Janowitzer Wolf (Parents:
Samuel Janowitzer and Juditha Torscht). Spouse: Amalia
N., sons: Isak (born 1789) received the post, Moritz (born 1801) received post No. 16. Isak married in 1811
Sara Hahn (and in) 1816 Amalie Auer; sons: Simon (born
1817) and Markus, who died in 1825.
Post 14: Ploch Samuel (Parents: Seligmann Ploch and mother
N.N.). Spouse: Etsher (sic) Kaufmann (married 1755). Sons: Wolf Gabriel (born
1769), received the marriage license on the paternal post and Isak (born 1773),
received the marriage license "on the cropping farm." Wolf Gabriel
married 1795 Johanna Schwarz, and had sons: Joachim (born 1797), received the
family post, married 1816 Eva Janowitzer, sons: Abraham, Moises, Wolf, Hermann,
Seligmann, Gabriel, Philipp, Löbel (born 1804) received post 18 and Wolf
Post 15: Klauber Salomon (parents and spouse unknown,
married 1775) died (date unknown) without children. Successor on the post was
Fleischl Daniel (from post 11), his wife Susanna Porges (married 1819). Sons:
Post 16: Janowitzer Samuel (parents, first wife, day of death
unknown). Second wife Esther Leder (married 1806), no sons. Was succeeded on
the post by Janowitzer Moritz (from post 13). First wife Rosalia Ploch (married
1823), second wife Rachel Fleischl (married 1825). Sons: Albert, Samuel.
Post 17: Hahn Enoch (parents: Elias Hahn and Golde N.). Wife:
Amalia Samuel (married 1784). Sons: Solomon (born 1800) and Joel (born 1803).
The former received the post, married 1828 Rosalia Heller. Sons: Elias, Josef,
Post 18: Hahn Jakob (parents unknown). Wife Magdalena N. (married
1774), died 1816 without sons. Successor: Ploch Löbel (Parents: Gabriel
Ploch and Johanna Schwarz). Married 1829 Rosina Porges. Son Samuel.
Post 19: Löwit Eliazim (parents and wife unknown) no
sons, "1805 verlustiget" (he lost the post) (as poor taxpayer).
Successor: Klauber Elias (died 1832, parents: Nephtaly Klauber and Libuscha
Wiener) married 1806 Sarah Schwarz. Son Hermann (born 1812) received 1832 this
post, married 1834 Rebekka Porges, son Josef Eduard (born 1838, died 1839).
Post 20: Windspach Eva (parents unknown,
married 1762, died 1816). Her son Samuel was declared "verlustigt”.
Successor: Lažansky Abraham from Drosau (Parents: Harschl L. and Barbara Mayer);
married 1800 Rebekka Freund, received the marriage license on the crop, 1821
he got the post at Neuern. Sons: Jakob and Löbel.
Post 21: Ploch Seligmann (parents: Küble Ploch and Franziska
N.), married 1767 Veronika Kohner. Sons: Israel (born 1777) and Löbel
(born 1783). Israel married 1814 Elika Sicher, received the paternal post,
died 1835, son Seligmann.
Post 22: Ploch Moises (parents as at No. 21), married 1775
Rachel Alexander. Sons: David 1780, Mändl 1784, Josef 1792, Lazar 1799.
Josef received the post No. 52 at Slawikau, David received the paternal post.
Married 1823 Klara Hahn, sons: Joachim and Alexander.
Post 23: Klauber Juda (parents: Abraham Joel K. and Esther
David) married 1768 Amalie Mändl. Son David received the post, married
1800 Sara Spitzer from Neustadtl, Pilsen region. Sons: 1. Abraham born 1801,
married 1825 Susanna Janowitzer, sons: Wolf 1827, Joel 1835 (he gets the) family
post. 2. Joel 1804, received 1844 marriage license on his butcher business,
3. Nathan born 1811, was given his own family post. 4. Salomon born 1813, married
into the post at P?iwosten, which was transferred to Nahoschitz.
Post 24: Lowitsch Moises from Wollin came in 1781 as a widower
to Bistritz, died 1809.
Post 25: Porges Salomon (Parents: Jakob Porges and
Rachel N.), married 1788 Abigail Berger.
Son David got
his father's family post, married 1814 Barbara Janowitzer,
Son Solomon in 1843
moved to Hungary,
Son Samuel married 1839 Fanni Epstein, née Reichenbaum,
Post 26: Jeiteles Josef (Parents: Bernhard J. and Eva N.),
married 1788 Rebekka Daniel, died 1819. Sons: Bernard 1804, Salomon 1807, Wolf
1809, Elia 1812. Bernard married 1838 Eva Klauber; sons: Elias 1839, Josef
1841, Jakob 1845.
Post 27: Wittner Sara (parents unknown, married 1756, 1806 "verlustigt").
Successor: Ploch Ezechiel from Deschenitz. (Parents: Samson Ploch and Barbara
Klein), married 1820 Sara Benesch. Sons:Simon 1822 and Markus 1826.
Post 28: Janowitzer Aron (parents and wife unknown, married
1794) relocates about 1806 to Prague. Successor: Freund Josef (parents and
wife, Year and day of death unknown.). Successor: Bloch Löbel
(Parents: David Wolf Bloch and Rebekka Ofner), married
1814 Katharina Kohn. Son: Salomon Bloch, married 1846 Elisabeth
Fleischer, son David.
Post 29: Ploch Naphthaly from Upper Neuern (Parents:
Moises Ploch and mother N.N.), married 1787 Amalia N.,died 1800. Sons: Joachim
1780, David 1798, Nephthaly 1802. Joachim married 1818 Magdalena Porges, sons:
Salomon 1821, Hermann 1828.
Post 64: Windspach Markus, Lower Neuern (Parents
and wife unknown)
no sons. Successor: Janowsky Joachim (Parents: Moises Abraham
J. and Rachel Duschenes), married 1790 Barbara N. Sons:
Moritz, Augustin, Josef. "This familiant and
his three sons in 1812 converted to catholizism.” Sucessor:
Joachims brother Janowsky Wolf, married 1799 Ludmilla Steiner,
son Aron, born 1803, 1843 moved to Hungary.
Post 78: Fleischmann Daniel (parents: Moises Joachim Fleischmann
and Anna N.), married 1800 Klara Fleischl. Son Fleischmann Joachim married
1825 Elisabetha Kohner, the 1836 Maria Fleischmann. Son Abraham 1844.
Post 80: Ploch Salomon Löbel (parents: Moises Ploch
and Rachel N.), married 1780 Sara Kohner, died 1825. Son Josef Ploch married
1822 Theresia Bäck, sons: Moises 1823, Moritz 1825, Salomon 1827.
Post 84: Fleischel Abraham (Parents: Samuel Fleischl and Barbara
Ploch), married 1825 Eva Kohner,; was transferd from Nedraschitz to this (erledigt/frei) post.
Sons: Moises 1826, Ignaz 1828, Hermann 1830, Josef 1832, Samuel 1840, Nathan
Post 46: Löwit Juda, his successor his son Isak Wolf
Post 54: Klein Demuth.
Post 55: Ploch Barbara, widow of Moises Ploch in Deschenitz.
Post 56: Schwarz Moises.
Post 57: Schwarz Abraham.
Post 58: Schwarz Israel.
Post 59: Berger Josef.
Post 60: Fleischmann Eliazim.
Post 93: Luft Friedmann, transferred 1834 from region Berau
to the domination Bistritz.
Post 86: Ploch Mayer.
Post 92: Rubin Nathan, transferred from Teinitzl to Bistritz.
Post 53: Fleischmann Moises.
It is striking that in 1799 no post existed in Holletitz.
There was a brandy distillery of the dominion/rule of Bistritz
which stood beside the brick shack, right of the Neuern
road to the railway station (…), which usually
was operated by a Jew.
1799 in Janowitz there is a post occupied by the Jew David
Holletitz. This name indicates, like many other names already
mentioned (Janowitz, Neumarkt, Neuern, Österreicher (=
Austrian) the former residence and subsequent origin
of these families.
The regulation of the numbers of Jewish families forced
the larger part of the offspring of each community to severe
resolutions. The progress of the era provided resorts
which reduced the plight of the later-born. Already the
patent from Nov 1st 1781, with which bondage was repealed,
freed all subjects – and hence as well the Jews – to
choose a craft or skill without permission of authority.
This opened new possibilities to all the second sons who
hitherto were doomed to singleness or emigration. Farming,
trade, art and qualifications as a surgeon became frequent
new paths to establish one's own family. Also in the
Bistitzer dominium this boon was applied and hence in the
year 1809 Isak Ploch in Neuern (post Nr.14) received the
marriage license as a farmer, 1844 Joel Klauber (born 1804)
from Lower Neuern got the marriage license as a butcher
and 1849 Isak, son of Moises Küberl from Drosau got
the marriage license as a weaver. Emigration anyhow didn’t
stop. In 1812 Lazar Hartmann Drosau emigrated to Hungary,
and that without consent of authority.
Salomon Porges and Aron Janowsky from Neuern went to Hungary and
one year earlier Löwit Simon from Drosau (…)
emigrated to America, perhaps the first resident from our
area who dared to cross the great ocean.
There were also cases where in the region, Jews converted
to Christianity, as in 1809 Löbl Goldschmidt from
Janowitz, then Joachim Hartmann from Drosau who emigrated
to Austria and 1812 the Familiant from Neuern
Joachim Janowsky, who converted with his three sons. He
was married to Ludmila Steiner. In the succession of the
conversion, his family post no. 64 became free on which
then his brother Wolf advanced.
The privilege of the first born in this time – for
the entitlement to marry – was of great importance
for every Jew.
And yet once one first-born felt impelled to abdicate all
his privileges (…) as it proves a registration in
the cadastral register of Janowitz. The first-born son
of the Janowitzer protection Jew Moises
Kahn, Kötschl, declares on august 4th 1798 "that
because of my unfortunate circumstances of health do not
allow me to (…) marry, I cede the rights of the
first-born to my second-born brother Simon Kahn (…)”.
The document was sealed with the seal of the town of Janowitz
and was accepted also from authorities.
How much from Neuern emigrated Jews were attached to their
old home and how they still felt as members of their families – even
after many decades – shows a letter, which was written
in 1928 by Mr. Alexander Fleischl, royal Danish consul
in Budapest on the occasion of the erection of a war memorial
to his Neuerner fellow countrymen:
"Nevertheless many decades have passed since I as a Child with my parents
left (…) the old home, the sense of belonging has not extinguished in
me. And even when it is not granted to me to visit the place in person, in
which my family lived for decades, every time mentioning of the name
Neuern is mentionned, I feel that (…) one has his roots where one self,
where ones father and grandfather were born.”
has always been some distinguished men among the members
of the Jewry in Neuern, who did a lot for their community
and for the economic uplift of the city.
Temple of Neuern (exterior view)
From the 18th century I would like to mention Abraham
Löbl, who is mentioned in 1734 and still in 1742 as
a deputy of the Pilsner region and who was in close business
connection to count Palm of Bistritz, who engaged himself
(…) in Löbls business.
From more recent times: Mr. Dr. med. Benedikt Federer from
Neuern was not only an excellent physician, but also in
his many years as Municipal representative a promoter of
progress, which is the reason why the town nominated him
honorary citizen. Dr. Federer didn’t get married.
Normally a very silent, short man with a close brown full
beard, he was highly esteemed as a speaker. His speeches
were brilliant and sparkled with a dry sense of humor.
He died in Neuer non October 14th 1902, at the age
Rabbi Max Reiser was born in 1839 in Hausbrunn, District
Malacka, Preßburg county. He was the Rabbi in Neuern
from 1876 until his death on January 5th 1913.
He repeatedly held lectures at the Teachers Association
of the District Neuern and was also active as a writer.
He wrote 3 books:
"Rätsel" in Hebrew
and scripture, with German translation for
Teachers and Students at school or at home,
wisdom"- a collection of Talmudic sentences, conversations, stories and maxims for school
"Biedermänner” - Life
and rise of the pious and honored men.
In his community, he was an exemplary pastor and educator.
He took much pain in the formation of pupils for the Temple
Choir. Rabbi Reiser enjoyed great esteem in his community,
in which he always and with great success worked for peace and the maintenance of all virtues.
In 1895 Mr. Wilhelm Ekstein from Vienna founded a factory
business in Neuern which soon gained reputation in whole
Europe : the grinding of optical glasses Wilhelm Ekstein & Co.
It soon took an upward move and gained strong influence
on the uplift prosperity of the population and of the number
of houses in Neuern; so one can say that the increase
in prosperity of Neuern began with the foundation of his
factory. Mr. Wilhelm Ekstein was a paternal
friend to his workers; as first town councilor, he worked
for the progress of the community. In recognition of his
merits, he was appointed honorary citizen. Together
with his wife, he founded the Wilhelm und Regine Ekstein
foundation for the poor of Neuern. He died on July 17,
in Neuern at the age of 73.
In 1929 died in the bloom of his life Mr. Wilhelm Katz,
steam mill owner in Neuern, a man who during the war was
adjutant of the 11th infantry regiment at Gyula and in
this influential position did his of fellow countrymen
infinitely good. Many of them owe him that they are still
alive. In the commune he especially attended the municipal
power plant, which he full of farsightedness and joy of
entrepreneurs (…) generously extended without burden
the commune. So he lifted the commune’s prosperity
a lot. Wilhelm Katz, however, was not only a good businessman,
but also a well educated man, friend of art and literature.
Temple of Neuern (interior
Members of the Jewish community and
Temple and cemetery
The Jewish community of Neuern at present is made up
of the Jewish community and the branch communities of
Deschenitz, Janowitz and Drosau. It includes the towns
of Neuern, Deschenitz, Janowitz, Drosau, Besin, Eisenstein,
Bistritz and Bezdekau. The present headman of the community
is the wood dealer Karl Jetter.
Eduard Jeiteles 1894-1906,
Eduard Vogel 1906-1911,
David H. Bloch 1911-1917,
Dr. Ignatz Bloch 1917-1920,
Dr. Leopold Goldbach 1920-1926,
Siegfried Bernt 1926-1929,
Franz Stein 1929-1933.
The number of souls of the Jewish Community of Neuern is
currently 239, among them 90 taxpayers; the budget in 1930
amounts to K? 35,000.
The Jews of Neuern, Deschenitz and Bistritz always formed
a community, which had its rabbi, its cemetery at Neuern
and a synagogue in Neuern and Deschenitz.
The date the first temple in Neuernwas built is unknown.
Only in 1724 is it mentioned for the first time in a document,
but it may have existed already a long time. This first
Temple in Neuern stood at the corner of houses
X and XII, and must therefore have been a totally insignificant
building. It was no longer used after the edification of
the new (present) temple in the year 1797, and burned down
one year later. In former times Neuern had its own
Jewish school, whose teachers took lodgings in different
houses. The teacher of the school assumed also the duty
of prayer leader. In 1713, Samuel Abraham was Schulmeister and
was paid annually 30 Gulden by the Jewish community.
Beside him, in 1713, there was a second teacher named Lebel
Herschel, who also got 30 Gulden. In 1724, Samuel Joachim
Peck from Prague was schoolmaster in Neuern. He lived in
the house of Salomon Simon no. X.. In 1734 Mojses
Helischau is mentioned as schoolmaster, in 1774 Herschl
Lipmann (1775:Leibmann) is mentioned as “Schulsinger”.
The current Rabbi is Mr. Emil Klauber (since 1921). His
Rabbi Nagel 1865-1873
Rabbi Stern 1873-1876
Rabbi Max Reiser 1876-1913
Rabbi Arpad Hirschberger
Rabbi Schapira 1915-1917
Rabbi A. Beck 1918-1920
The Jewish cemetery at Neuern
is as old as the Jewish Community, which goes back at least
to the 15th century. It is located about 1 km south of
the present railway station, picturesque on the top of
a rocky hill, formerly called "die Lohe".
We find here many old gravestones, cut from the local
rough and easily weathered mica slate, whose inscriptions
can no longer be deciphered. Around 180,0 stones
from Kehlheim Marble in a kind of Empire-style came to
fashion. And (also) the modern tombstones, high prisms
from polished Swedish syenite with golden inscriptions,
reflect the artistic taste of our time.
In 1750 the Jewish cemetery became overcrowded
and much too small, so the community cared for its enlargement
and bought from the citizens Friedrich Böhm and Johann
Weyß of Lower Neuern an attached parcel of ten Klafter
length and twelve Klafter width. (……) The
contract was registered in the “Stadtbuch” (town
book) of Neuern which today is the fist volume of the municipal
chronic. The purchase contract was signed by "Mayr
Abraham Janowitz, Jews judge the Jews of the Community
of Neuern”. In 1924, the cemetery was expanded to
the east and was provided an entrance gate. (…)
The Jewish community of Neuern gained its greatest significance
through its versatile economic activities. From ancient
times, trade was the only activity of Jews.
As merchants they sold “allerlei Cramerey” and
haberdashery goods, textiles at annual fairs, Kirtagen and
as peddlers going from house to house and from village
(… … …)
One would think that in Neuern, located
on an old salt road from Bohemia to Bavaria, trading salt
should have been of great importance for the Jews. But
it was not so because Jews were strictly excluded from
trading in salt. The salt trade in Neuern was a privilege
of the commune. It obtained the salt for local want from
the imperatorial “Salzstadln” (salt – hayrick
??) at Taus or Klattau. Because the town was selling
salt also to out-of-town customers it was deprived of
the privilege of selling salt in 1782. (…) Jews
either allowed to trade gunpowder and saltpeter.
On the other side trade in local county products of all
kind increased and soon became the exclusive dominium of
the Jew’s : bed feathers, sheep wool, raw
hides, rabbit fur, flax, yarn, linen, cattle, horses and
later cereals. With the cattle trade came along the butcher
trade and in 1713 four Jewish butchers are known.
Beside of the economic surplus of the rural population
it was the dominum offives of the region, especially of
Bistritz (…) which were the most important sources
for the purchase of the local products.
(… … …)
The large number of poorer Jews bought
the goods in the villages within a large radius and delivered
them to the larger traders. One of them, after 1800, was
Salomon Bloch of Lower Neuern, who traded hides, raw leather,
furs, flax, hemp and other goods especially to Bavaria.
He was the biggest trader of the whole area till Pilsen
and he traveled to Prague once a month. Still
in the 1880s and 1890s people in Neuern narrated from him.
The main trading branch of the Jewry of Neuern formed the
trade with bed feathers and sheep wool.
The trading of feathers in Neuern
The small, insignificant town of Neuern
soon outdid the royal towns of western Bohemia (Pilsen,
Taus, Klattau) in feather trading.
How was it possible?
We have seen that the Jews of the area were the real creators
and promoters of this trade. However, the
royal towns had an old privilege according to which they
didn’t have to tolerate Jews within their walls.
They did use this privilege. Hardly did they accept the
economic assiduous Jews to stay overnight within their
walls at the time of market. Because they could
not gain ground here they transferred their action on the
grounds of nobility in the periphery and hinterland of
these towns. In Neuern they had the near border and
important trade routes, easy access options, the promotion
of the Lords (…) and the existence of a densely
populated area which was needed to work up the feathers
and the trade as pedlars.
Since trade with geese and feathers from
its beginnings was aimed to the “Reich”, which
means towards west, it is easily understandable that these
goods were accumulated in the western Bohemia. Here (…)
since ever were collected the geese and bales of feathers,
the abundances of the country, in order to take its way
to Germany. (…) The region of Taus, Neumark and
Neuern till Dosau was the main square of the bohemian,
later the European trade for bed feathers. Neuern was the
centre of this trade. In an earlier edition of Mayer’s
Encyclopaedia Neuern is named downright the centre of the
European trade in feathers. For the old age and the importance
of this trade for West Bohemia speaks the fact that already
in the 14th century, under Emperor Charles IV, the town
of Taus received the privilege beside of holding a market
of two weeks, to export feathers.
In Neuern the Jewish Community had to pay 15 Gulden for
a special “feather trade tax”. In the middle
of the 18th century here Meier Abraham Janowitz (bought
house no. XVIII from Khanny Österreicher) ran the
largest feather business. (…) (Together with his
brother Samuel Abraham Janowitzer – house no. VII –)
he founded a trading company in which they affiliated in
1783 also Meiers wife Sorl and his underage son Aron. For
the latter they ensured a heritage of 500 Gulden. The company
ran under the name "Meier und Samuel Janowitzer " and
after Meier’s death under "Samuel und Meier
Janowitzer seel. Erben''. It didn’t
last long under this name ; already in 1790 Samuel Abraham
Janowitzer closed a "firm contract in wool and feather
his two sons Wolf and Abraham for six years. (…)
The company was named Samuel Janowitzer and sons. (…)
When Samuel Abraham Janowitz was nominated in 1769 for
the post as Judenrichter (Jew’s judge) he
asked the authority to not consider him because
he had “considerable Kapitalien and his
work constrain to travel often and far (…)”.
Count Palm was appreciative of his arguments and assigned
the office of Bistritz to nominate someone else as judge.
This trade company which worked with – for this time – extraordinary
means and span business connections over a major part of
Bohemia changed its name then in “Janowitzer, Porges & Co”,
later in “Janowitzer & Fleischl”. (…)
The present owner, Mr. Alexander Fleischl, is also Royal
Also very old is the company Klauber, today “A. Klaubers
Sohn” in Neuern. It conducts a steam cleaning and
ships feathers to mail order companies and small
national and international stores.
Around 1840 one of the largest feathers stores in Neuern
was the Company Porges, Vater & Sohn; for the period
around 1800 must be remembered the business in bed feathers
in Neuern Hönig Hahn (…). (…) The Neuern
feather business took a lively boom after the French Wars
and especially after the big fire of Hamburg (1842). Around
1845 from the Neuern area an annual quantity of
10.000 cwt was exported to Germany, Switzerland, Holland
Around 1800 a town in Western Bohemia tried
to dispute Neuern its dominating rank in the feather business:
Alt- and Neuzedlisch near Tachau, with an old and
rich Jewish community. The founder of the house Rothschild
in Paris is said to have made efforts to get in contact
with a wholesale dealer of Altzedlisch, but without success.
Large fires prevented the further expansion of these towns
and Neuern left these competitors far behind. The
Neuerner Jewish feather merchants, restricted by many illiberal
regulations and prevented from travelling and peddling,
were forced to look for a way out which they found in
engaging the Christian population of the Angel Valley and
send them worldwide to sell their
products. The business grew and developed well. (…)
Soon a network of branches spread over the
whole German Empire and the alpine Länder.
As the Christian salesmen travelled in company (…)
for cases of emergency they had to be able to communicate
even in the presence of their customers in a way that was
incomprehensible for them. Therefore their patrons,
the Jewish business magnates (…) had equipped them
with a kind of secret language which vocabulary almost
entirely derived from Hebrew. Some snatches/chunkes of
this feather trading jargon is still alive in the Neuern
The sheep wool trade
stood in close relationship to the feather trade (…)
while feather were the filling of cushions and blankets.
were sheep flocks in each village and markes at these times.
The wool was cleaned and combed in homes, partly
spun and worked to stockings and Scherkenstoff (??). The
wool that was not consumed in homes was given to the traders,
for export. Special licenses were requested for this purpose.
In 1768, the Bistritz authority certified that Mayer Abraham
Janowitz from Neuern had charged a cart with 14
bags of domestic Bohemian wool. He wanted to carry it “through
the electorate Bavaria to Salzburg and Tirol.” Around
1790, the company Samuel Janowitzer & Söhne was
the conventionary purchaser of the herrschaftliche wool.
(… … …)
Brothers Samuel Abraham
and Meier Abraham Janowitz did a big business in lending,
mainly to the glassware producers of the area of the
royal free farmers. (…)
Jews rendered good services to the Lords as so-called Hausjuden in
various businesses and interventions. The rule of Bistritz
regularly used Jews for confidential missions and to resolve
difficult tasks. (…)
Other Jews were tenants of herrschaftliche distilleries
and potash (…) boiling houses. (… …)
In the past Jews had been the tenants of road charges in
many places and also in Neuern.
In Neuern there were four
tollgates, one above the houses 296 and 97, the second
in Reichsstraße, the third in upper Kirchenstraße,
the fourth at house No. 11 in Mühlstraße.
A plague/trouble to all the herrschaftliche tenants
was, whether they were innkeepers, miller, had a distillery
or tollgates, that in the 18th century they were obligated
to take the “Schöpse” (??) which
were sorted out from the lords for 15 – 20
pennies. Such animals often perished before they were brought
home. These tenants were also forced (…) to take
the spoiled herrings for 4 Kreuzer the piece. People claimed
bitter about it, when in 1770 an imperial commission travelled
the area and collected information about the living conditions
of the population.
Year 1848 eventually brought the Jews the suspension
of all restrictive laws regarding their
freedom. They were allowed to live in the royal towns until
then closed to them (…) and they could purchase
houses and land outside the ghettos, where they had lived
constipated in distressful tightness. (…) In 1876
with the opening of the railway line Pilsen – Eisenstein,
Neuern was connected to the general rail network. (…)
Now the development of the home country grew faster than
In the early 70's, the company Liebig & Co.
set up a steam saw and Moses Bloch founded a matches fabric
(…) in Neuern. (…) In 1885, the company
Joss & Löwenstein
(Prague) built a laundry factory in Neuern (branch
office, closed down at the end of 1928). Mr. Wilhelm Ekstein,
whose wife came from the old Neuern family Fleischl-Janowitzer,
transferred in 1895 his grindery of optical glasses from
Vienna to Neuern. In 1902, Mr. Siegfried Bloch (now Bernt)
founded his Gabelwerk (fork fabric?), the
so-called iron factory at the Neuern railway station. Later
in 1925 came along the laundry factories of “Paul
Stein & Söhne” and in 1929 of Siegmund Epstein.
The grain trade to Bavaria was carried on by Josef
Bloch & Söhne and (…) (equally) trade in
wood (Karl Jetter, sawmill Siegmund Bernt). Over the past
century the old bed feather industry of “A. Klaubners
son”, then Otto Fleischl had adapted to modern conditions
and had developed into a modern business. All these Neuern
companies had big foreign and sometimes overseas markets.
The fact that they had directed the flow of money
to Neuern fed many families and contributed
to the boom of boom town. While other towns
dropped behind in their development, the number of houses
in Neuern doubled between 1900 and 1930 and tripled since
Hereunder are listed some writings
of the author which relate to this issue:
Die Neuerner Häuser und ihre Geschichte (The
Neuern houses and their history)
Aus Neuerns Vergangenheit (From Neuerns past)
(Both in the festschrift for the opening of the new city
hall in Neuern, 1907; published by the town commune of
Landes- und Volkskunde der Tschechoslowakischen Republik, 2. edition,
400 pp with
fig. and maps, published by P. Sollore successor, Reichenberg.
Aus dem Neumarker Landestore. Die Volkskunde eines Aufklärers.
Schriften zur Volk
skunde des mittleren Böhmerwaldes und< des Prager Ghettos
von Georg Leopold Weisel (1804 – 1873), gesammelt
und eingeleitet von Josef Blau. Published by Franz Kraus,