History of the Jews of Neuern

History of the Jews in Neuern
Edited by the teacherJosef Blau, Neuern
Translation by Gisela Porges (Vienna, Austria)

Click here to access the original article in German

The town of Neuern (Czech Nýrsko) is located on the headwaters of the River Angel, near the Bavarian border, near a old hill-climbing, which linked already a thousand years ago Bohemia with Bavaria and served especially the salt trade.
In the 14th century the path was called “deutscher Steig” (german path), then in the 16th century "Klattau - Vilshofener Straße” (Street between Klattau and Vilshofen).
To fortify and secure this ancient trade route at the entering of the hill-climbing into the forest at the border the fortified church of Neuern and in 1300 Castle Bayereck were erected.
At the same time as Bayereck the lords of Castle Bistritz, which is located in a valley below the church of Neuern, founded a fortified town on a small island in the Angel River. The town was so small, it was made up only of a big market place and it lacked space for any narrow streets. This market place became the modern Unterneuern (Lower Neuern)
The location was also duty place and the “german path” was closed with this foundation at the point where it crossed the raging torrent Angel.
About this new town we get the first news from a Latin document dated from 1327.  With this document King John from Bohemia, the father of emperor Charles IV gave his creditor Peter of Rosenberg, who had already Castel Taus as security/pledge, also Castle Janowitz with all its belongings and in addition the royal taxes of the small town of Neuern. In the Latin-written document the article regarding Neuern says:
". . . superaddentes eis insuper despeciali gratia thelonium in Oppido diclo Nyrsko et ad ipsum regnumseu pertinebat Boemia pertinere poterat modo qualicumque ",
in English:

“... And in addition to this all out of special grace the tax of the small town called Neuern, which also belongs to the kingdom of Bohemia, or in some way belongs to it.”
Already in the 14th century in the city of Klattau, four hours of walking-distance from Neuern, there were some Jewish families.
In a form from around 1385 we have got a document from King Wenzel IV which pertain the cause of two Jews of Klattau: these "servants of our royal chamber" there are only named with their initials P and A.
From a Jewish settlement in the town Janowitz near Neuern we learn by 80 years later. In a document the knight Ulrich of Janowitz sets the conditions under which the Jew Baroch and his household are allowed to reside in Janowitz. The writing in Czech language is from the 25th of April 1466 and states the following: <

"I. . . announce that the Jew Baroch with his servants and with his belongings may settle and remain with me as long as he or I choose it. He shall give me annually two Schock pennies (“Groschen”) in interest, one on St. George’s Day the other one on St. Gallus Day.
If he does not wish to remain longer and wish to support himself under another master, with or without my knowledge I promise him and his servants and his belongings three miles of safe conduct.
Also I promise him that neither I nor my burgrave neither one of my servants will force him to give money or a loan of money.
 If somebody owes this Jew money and does not want to pay, so I or my burgave or somebody from the eldest will force this person, to pay back the money with interests. Even if one of my own people gives the Jew something in pledge, an armor or a horse or a crossbow, nor I nor my burgrave will force him to give the pledge back as long as the money was not  paid with interests or something else was given to him as pledge. (…)
And above all this I give to the Jew and his servants and his possession the same right, as other Jews in Bohemia, in the cities of the Emperor and King and the gentlemen have. This I will cherish and keep as a good Christian."
This correspondence from the year 1466 shows us under which conditions the settlement of Jews on noble manors occurred at this time. Therefore it is an example for the conditions at a noble possession at Bistritz, which is close to Janowitz. The town of Neuern stood under the protection of Bistritz, which had like Janowitz an old but twice as strong Jewish community which gained in elderly and recent times in many different ways importance.
It is not known nor the exact year nor even the approximate time in which the first Jewish families did settle in Neuern. As in other western Bohemian towns and as in the nearby Janowitz, which today is part of the Jewish community of Neuern, the settlement of the Jews took part already in the 15th century.
In Tachau actually even in the 13th century it is reported there shall have been Jews. After 1500 there were already Jews in Lub and Kydlin in Klattau, then in Plan and Haid and already in 1530 the town of Wodnian received the right from emperor Ferdinand, not to be obligated to tolerate Jews inside their walls. The Towns of Klattau and Taus as like as Pilsen had no Jews at all.
In Neuern Jews inhabited a special part of the town assigned to them, the so-called “Judenwinkel” (Jews angle or corner; in the vernacular called “Guunwingal”), which was at the south-western end of the town and formed a triangle.
The houses almost all have been built originally from the authorities and had been their property; but soon one Jew after the next bought his dwelling and it became hereditary property and in the “Kataster” (land register) from 1713 it is said from already 13 houses that they were “hereditarily bought” and only from 5 “Chaluppen” that they belonged to the authority.
Of these 18 Jewish houses from 1713 already 17 stand together in the ghetto, only one was outside the town beyond the river. Moreover there was another Jewish house in Upper Neuern, away from the main road or church road or – as it was called earlier – away from the market.
First the Jews partly were dispersed in the various “Winkel”(corners) outside of (…)  Lower Neuern but still lived inside the moat.
From the old cadastral registers we learn like the authorities after the Thirty Years War were anxious to displace the dwelling place of all Jews in their quarter. Doing this they ceded the desire of the church, who wanted to isolate Christian and Jewish population from one another because she feared for the salvation of her believers (…).
According to the particularity of the Jewish houses they also had a different numbering. When  the numbering of houses was introduced in 1771 in all the habsburgian Länder, Jewish houses got Roman numerals, while Christian houses got Arab ones. (Because Jewish houses where not suited for military quartering, for which the numbering of the houses was created.)
The Jewish house situated outside Neuern got no. I, the houses in the Jewish Winkel got the numbers II to XVIII.
The Jewish house in Upper Neuern got no I.

The oldest messages on the Neuern Jews go back to 1618.
In the official "Judenfassion" of 1724, the ancestors of the Jews living in Neuern where cited, when they have already lived in Neuern at this time (1618).
Here we read the names:
Jonas Windspach with his sons David and Jacob and his daughter Feigele
Mayer Bloch with his sons Lazar and Moyses
J. Mützl, who had only a daughter.
Elias Hon (Hahn = cock) from Schütthofen married her and came to Neuern.
Abraham Zarpath with his son Wolf
Salomon Arson with a son of the same name, but whom he lost later.

From the period before 1618, only the Bloch family remained in Neuern.
This family increased in such a way that it became the largest and for our town downright representative Jewish family and therefore Neuern playfully often was called “Blochowitz”.
We can assume that this worldwide extended family can call our town their original home.

In writings from 1670 the (then already deceased) "Jew Daniel" from Neuern is mentioned. He left a big fortune.

From the year 1694, we learn from a writing from the archive of the Ministry of Interior the names of the Neuern Jews Samuel Neumark and Herschl.
Both were the guardians of the orphans after Nathaniel Neuern.
More detailed and organized information about Neuern Jewish families and houses we learn only after 1700. This information however does not come from the Jewish community itself, as it lost all its recordings/chronicles in two big fires in 1798 and in 1861. We owe this information the ambitions of the State to have an overview over the tax-capacity of the Jews and – on the other hand – its efforts of limiting the number of Jewish families.

For the first goal a list of Jewish families was composed in 1713, which was added to the old cadastre of the reign of Bistritz (in the Landesarchiv of Prague).  
For the second goal the already mentioned Judenfassion from 1724 and the “Familiantenbuch” from 1800 was created.
This book recorded the holder of the 23 “Familienstellen” (family posts) which were fixed in the year 1800 with all their ancestors and offspring. (Both in the archive of the Ministry of Interior in Prague).

Map of Lower NEUERN

(Black = Jewish houses, “Judenwinkel”)

More news mainly comes from the old cadastral registers (at the Bezirksgericht/county court Neuern), the archives of the town of Neuern and the rule of Bistritz. (…)

The Old Jewish Houses of Neuern
The Neuern ghetto (see map) is a complex of buildings built by authority according to a plan. Almost all the Jews of the town were settled here by authority and the houses became Jewish property through acquisition or exchange.
Originally, the wooden Jewish houses, pushed close together in a triangular space, with the main entrance between houses XVII and XVI, were always closed at night by a chain (Eruv). After this chain the house no. XVI (no. 132 new), on which the chain hung, in the vernacular is still called "beim Kettenjuden" (at the Jew with the chains).
The Roman house numbers were only given in 1771. Previously the houses (in documents) were described by the indication of its two neighbours. However, because the owners of neighbouring houses changed frequently, the method is rather inaccurate for us today. The attached drawing shows the construction level about 1800, when the temple no longer stood at XI, but (as is today) at V instead of the Wünschbach House. On the other hand, the map shows house no. XVIII which extended far into the main road. It formed a heavy traffic barrier and therefore after the fire of 1861 was not permitted to be rebuilt.
Houses II and III are separated by a narrow road. It can no longer ascertain today if this existed earlier or if it was only opened after the 1798 fire to facilitate the access to the synagogue.
The houses on the plan are identified with two numbers, with Roman numbers from 1771 and Arab numbers from 1880. However, the houses which were never given new numbers – their locations today are empty sites or sheds – are only marked with the old Roman numbers.
Aside from the old Jewish town, across the river, there was the house no. I (now 159), which originally had been a Christian house and only after its acquisition by Simon Ploch in the year 1707 was liberated from the obligation of military quartering, a burden that only Christian houses had to bear. The possession of a “Judenhaus” always was always combined with a seat at the synagogue, a place at the cemetery (…) normally also the right of free trade and slaughtering. (…) These conditions are found in each sales contract of Jewish houses in the Neuern cadastre.

In earlier periods of war and peace, Jewish houses of Neuern shared the severe fate of the whole town. Two large fires are reported in recent times ; in both of them the Jewish temple and school were destroyed:
On September 6th of 1798 through "a clap of thunder”, as it was called in the ancient reports, 7 Christian houses along with 6 full barns and with the whole year’s Fechsung (?) and 4 taxable Jewish houses, further 13 non taxable Jewish houses and 2 synagogues burned down entirely and the damage amounted to 21,476 Gulden and 30 Kreuzer. The then present synagogue was only finished a year before and there has been also the old temple.
The archive of Bistritz from this time shows petitions of people who lost everything in the fire (“Abbrändler”) for getting construction timber at a reduced price together with its positive execution.
On August 1st 1861, a second fire broke out – again in the Judenwinkel.
The temple, the school and seven houses were destroyed.

The Jewish Houses of Neuern
as far as they were marked with Roman numbers (from 1771):

(159). Simon Plach (Simon Bloch, Schimbl Plach) from no. XVII buys 1707 the upper, against the stone bridge located side of the house, for 90 Rhenish Gulden from Georg Irlwekh, townsman and tailor. The year before, Simon Bloch had married his wife Beyle. His father was Herschl, his grandfather Lazar and his great-grandfather was Mayer Bloch (already a resident in Neuern before 1618 , ancestor of the extensive Bloch family).
1746 house no. I goes to Samson Schmule.
1767 David Salomon’s heirs, then Nathan Schmule.
1785 Salomon Bloch, who pays 15 Gulden protection tax/interest (?).
1788 Samuel Fleischl buys the house. Anton Fleischl. Berthold Fleischl. When purchased by Simon Bloch (1707) the former house of a citizen was liberated from the burden of military quartering (…).

II (142). Obaure (also written Droura and Twere), widow of Selik Ploch, 1727 bought from the authority for 34 Gulden the little house at the corner (“Häusl am Eck”), semidetached with the little house of Löb Simon. Her husband Selik Ploch (his father Moses Bloch, 1639) was a grandson of the ancestor Mayer Bloch (before 1618). This house was inherited in 1745 by her son Jacob Küberl, later Isak Janowitzer, 1815 Wolf Janowitzer who paid 17 Gulden protection tax.
Wenzl Krizek, George, then Katharina Hamperl, Gustav Wallisch. Anna Wallisch.

III (141). In the year 1713 the house was leased by Samuel Bloch with his wife Minkerl. He was a brother of the Simon Plach of no. I (from no. XVII).
In the year 1718 he bought half the house from the authority.
1746 Löb Simon,
1753 his son in law Wolf Joll with his wife Bele.
1785 Schmulle Ploch,
1815 Gabriel Ploch, who paid annually 10 Gulden protection tax.
Löbl Ploch, Joel Klauber, Jakob Sicher, Anton Klauber. Anton and Theresia Klauber. Therese Klauber.

IV (139) was originally one half of no. III.
In 1718 Moyses Schmule Plach buys it from authority.
1753 it is passed to his son Moses Schmule Plach.
1759 Schaya,
1785 "Schaya House" uninhabited.
1815 Daniel Fleischmann pays 15 Gulden protection tax.
Anton Klauber, Therese Klauber.

V 1618. Jannos (Jonas) Windspach.
1646 David Windspach.
1713 it is written in the land register : This house which he had from his father and ancestor for 50 years was sold for 40 Gulden to Löbl Windspach (by the authority).
1702 Lebel Winschbach married his wife Schönel.
1762 from the son Josef to his son David Wünschbach, from him to David Janowsky.
1797 the Jewish community buys the house for the edification of a Betschule (synagogue) and pays annually 10 Gulden protection tax.
1798 it burned down completely, renewed. Temple.

VI. Empty building site, now a garden, next to the Temple (V).
Salomon Simon Windspach bought the place, which he paid cash, built construction lumber from the Chodenschlosser woods and let construct the house (“Chaluppe”). (his father Isak 1636, his grandfather Jonas Windspach before 1618, his wife Esther from Horaschdowitz since 1692). 
The Jew Meller of Kolinetz, married since 1658 with Ryffka (sister of Moses Bloch [1630] and daughter of the ancestor Mayer Bloch [before 1618]), had two sons, Jacob and Josef Meller. Jakob married in 1703 Rosina (from Blowitz) and Josef married in 1711 Frauet (from Kuttenplan).
Both brothers bought this house and shared it.
1743 Josef Meller sold his half for 80 Gulden to Elias Klaaber,
1746 another Klaaber (first name unknown) bought the second half.
1770 the half of Elias came to his heirs Herschl Elias and Salomon Elias Klaaber, from these to Samuel Abraham Janowitz.
1815 Salomon Klauber paid from his half (VI a) 7 ½ Gulden ground rent, Elias Klauber (son of Sara Klauber) the same basic rate for VI b.  
1850 the whole house is sold on auction by Isak Janowitzer to the Jewish community.

VII (137). Place where there was a fire, now a garden.
Before 1618 Abraham Zaparth, his son Wolf Zaparth (1655), Wolfs daughter Radisch marries
1708 Salomon Abraham from Rabi.
1727 “through official channel for 50 Gulden the manorial little house in the Judenwinkel of Neuern between Joachimb Hann and Jakob Melech (Meller) was given to him”. He paid annually 10 Gulden protection tax.
1742 the house was passed to his son Schmula Abraham Janowitz (1771 and 1784  called the "junger Prager").
1800 Samuel Janowitzer, David Porges.
1815 Joachim Ploch, Moritz Bloch.
About 1880 Wenzl and Katharina Schwarz (Ruaße).
About 1890 it burns down, then demolished. Jewish community.

VIII (together with IX: 136).
House of the rabbi, the former Judenschule (Synagogue).
Before 1618 Jakob J. Mützl, whose daughter Esther 1658 marries Elias Hon from Schüttenhofen. Before 1713, his son Joachim married Hennele of Mühlhausen. After the death of Joachim she got the little house for 50 Gulden from the authority.
1752 the house was already divided by Elias and Meier Hann, 1771 the two halves were marked with the numbers VIII and IX.
1815 Enoch Hahn holds both parts and pays annually 15 Gulden protection tax. Salomon Hahn. Jewish Community.

IX. Together with VIII today the house no. 136, dwelling house of the rabbis, property of the Jewish community.
About 1750 the old house was divided and no. IX received Meier Hann.
1785 (…) Jakob Juda.
1815 under Enoch Hahn both halves were reunited after more than sixty years separation. Salomon Hahn. Jewish community.

X. Shed of the dead carriage. The oldest known owner of this house is Salomon Simon, who married in 1692 Esther from Horaschdowitz (his father Isak, his grandfather Jonas Winschbach from house no. V). His son Mentl 1725.
1746 Lasserin (wife or daughter of a person called Lasser?),
1759 the widow Zapartin,
1785 Wolf Kirschner.
After the fire of 1798, the place was bought by the Jewish community and later the shed for the dead´s carriage was erectedthere. Jewish community.

Xl. Space against the River Angel, formerly synagogue.
After the fire of 1798 which also destroyed the synagogue, no longer used since 1797, the place was cleared and has been free space since then.

XIIa (135). Dwelling house.
After Jakob Küberl, who died 1769 the brothers Seligmann and Moses inherited the house. (1770 they took the name Ploch from their great-great-grandfather Meier Ploch.)
Seligmanns half was inherited 1785 by Israel Ploch.
1815 his descendent Küberl Ploch paid 6 Gulden protection tax.
Elisabeth Bloch. Wenzel and Anna Kollroß.

XIIb (134). In the year 1769 Moses Ploch inherited this part of the house, but it was too small for him. Therefore he in 1775 he bought 2 square Klafter from the town (for 16 Gulden, and 8 Kreuzer annually building site tax) and extended the house.
1815 Moses Ploch, 6 Gulden protection tax, Josef, afterwards Bernard Bloch. Bernard and Marie Bloch. Josef Bloch.

XIII (133). Dwelling.
1724 Meier Salomon, 1746 Mayer Moyses, 1759 Abraham Joll Romerl, 1785 Joel Abraham, then Judah Klauber,
1803 the house was inherited by Sara Klauber.
1815 Joel Klauber paid 15 Gulden protection tax. 1821 it goes to David Klauber. Abraham Klauber, Josef and Amalie Klauber, Gustav Klauber, Franz Blaschek.

XIV, formerly one half of a house, now a shed.
Before 1618 Salomon Aron, then his son with the same name.
1693 Josef Österreicher from Zebau near Weseritz married Hanele, daughter of David Winspach.
1699 he purchased from Strasserin (wife or daughter of a Strasser) her half of a Chaluppe next to Salomon Simon.
1724 Josef Österreicher sold this half house to Salomon Abraham.
1746 Josef Österreicher.
1759 Rauschy or Prager.
1785 the rabbi lives here.
1797 Samuel Janowitzer “der Prager”, later called “der alte Prager”, sold it to Juda Klauber and his son David.
1815 David Klauber paid 15 Gulden protection money.
Before 1880 the house came to the neighbour’s house 133 of Joseph Klauber, now Franz Blaschek.

XV. Former Dwelling, now courtyard of no. 132.
1718 it was inherited by Salomon Simon (Sabel) Bloch, inherited from his father Lazar; before Leonhard Schwarz had lived there.
1746 "Sabl",
1759 "Sablin",
1785 the widow Lasserin,
1815 Moyses and Samson Fleischl (15 Gulden protection tax)
Now at house no. 132 of Sigmund and Berta Bloch.

XVI (132), Dwelling.
1670 and 1692 Herschl Plach (grandson of Meyer Bloch "before 1618"). Wens Salomon.
1705 the house is bought by “Neidlwirt” (also called “neuer Wirt”=  new innkeeper) and David Simon for 150 Gulden.

1706 David Simon marries Schönle from Horaschdowitz. He was a son of Isak and a grandson of the ancestor Jonas Windspach.

1746,1749 Sandl.

1759 Sandl or Daniel Simon.

1788 to Daniel Simon, also called Bergner, then to Salomon Porges (also written Bories and Purias).
The house had a vault and a grocery.
One half of the vault belonged to Avigail Porges in the Frischmann's house at the Jewish “Tandlmarkt” at Prague.

Salomon Porges
around 1815 paid 15 Gulden protection tax.
Daniel Fleischl. Löbl Bloch. Daniel Bloch. Siegmund and Berta Bloch.

XVII (140). Dwelling.
1686 and yet in 1718 Maier Plach, a grandson of Mayer Bloch (before 1618). His wife Beyle, son Daniel, then Samuel Joachim, 1746 Samuel Joachim’s daughter "the Black Jewess", 1748 her son in law Salomon Simon (…). 1786 from Markus Salomon to Daniel Löbl Markus.
1788 Josef Jeiteles, 1815 Gabriel Bloch pays annually 15 Gulden protection tax.
Moyses Kleiner, Bernard Bloch. Josef and Amalie Bloch. Alfred and Gisela Bloch.

XVIII. Dwelling, which until 1861 stood at the current street, across from the former (…) inn.
1732 Josef Österreicher and Hanna Wünschbachin.
1739 Chaim Österreicher, 1746 Maier Abraham Janowitzer, wool wholesalers, feathers and cereals.
1794 to his brother Samuel Abraham Janowitzer.
1815 David Porges, 15 Gulden protection tax. Since  then, this house was extended into the street in a way a carriage could scarcely pass ; it was removed after the fire in 1861. Street.

In Upper Neuern
I. (14). Before 1618 until after 1643, the owner was Abraham Zaparth; 1655 his son Wolff, 1703 the house was taken by Joachim Johl (Joel) ; after him, it was owned by his widow Mory (Marie), who got married in 1723 to Maier Löb Blowitz.
1746 the son from first marriage, Joachim Joel, gets the house of his father for 200 Gulden. He buys the location at the market between Schenern Augustin (now Haas) and Ratich (now Blau), where later Hermann Bloch built the commercial building no. 15. Later, the heirs of Samuel Abraham Janowitz purchased the house by auction. They sold the house for 700 Gulden to the brothers Samuel and Jakob Moyses. Samuel Moyses´ widow Treindl sold it to Naftali Bloch, called Hirsch or Harsch, who was a “Schutz – and Handelsjud” at Neuern, son of Joachim Bloch, who died before 1815.
1785 Herschl Moyses.
1815 Amalie Bloch, 10 Gulden protection tax.
1870 Hermann Bloch.
1900 David and Henriette Bloch.

Since there is no accurate and complete recording of the numerous changes of ownership of the Neuern houses and the frequent change of families in the town and at the houses – even in the land register not all cases are reported – it is impossible to set up a complete list of house owners nor to connect families with (special) houses. Therefore it is not possible either, to create a connection without gaps between the inhabitants of Neuern of 1713 and the “Familianten(jewish families living on a Familienstelle – an authorised jewish home) of 1800. It is only when the now unsorted and inaccessible archive of Bistritz will be made useable that it will be possible for researchers to find the missing links, to fill the gaps of this work and correct any possible discrepancies.

The Jewish Families of Neuern
A) The families of 1713 and 1724.
The following text lists the families mentioned in the land register (Kataster) of 1713. For each family it is (…) mentioned its ancestry. The families from the Judenfassion, for which no connection with families from 1713 were found, or who came to Neuern later are listed at the end. It seems that families at that time migrated more than today.

Lower Neuern:
1. Salomon Daniel, from the house of Simet, 51, his Wife Estera 48, sons: Markus 22, Lebel 2, daughters: Hora 20, Veigel 16 years.
On his heritage property, pays the authority 15 Gulden, contributes (?) 50 Gulden, trades in wool, feathers, etc., and gains (through reported spending) about 150 Gulden. Is born in town.
1724 he is mentioned as Salomon Simon.
1737 he is mentioned again and his father, who had been over a hundred years old and has been a resident of Neuern for a many years. He had bought a small house in Neuern in 1669.
Daniel Salomon had lent money to the municipality of Neuern. ("Up to 50 Gulden …") and hadn’t received any interests. He was – by way of exception – in possession of a citizen’s house.
Solomon Simon (Daniel) was married since 1692 to Esther from Horaschdowitz. His father was David Winschbach (1646 self-employed), his grandfather Jonas Windspach, who had already settled in Neuern before 1618. Salomon Daniel (Simon) in 1713 was next to his brother David Simon, one of the most highly taxed Neuern businessmen.

Note:The spelling of surnames here follows the original document. Names had no defined spelling and the names Windsbach, Bloch, Hahn and were almost every time were written differently, just as their writer liked.

2. Josef Österreicher, from the house of Levi, 48, wife Anna 45, sons: Isaac 20, Jonas 17, daughter Bayerle 11 years. Has his in hereditary possession bought Chaluppe, deals with cloth, wool, feathers, linen; pays authority 15 Gulden, contributes 28 Gulden, beyond that gains about 109 annually. Has been a resident of Neuern for 24 years.
1724: The house (No. XIV) before 1618 belonged to Salomon Aron, after him his son with same name; whose child (???…) that’s why Josef Österreicher took its place. He hail from Zebau near Weseritz and 1693 had married Hanele, the daughter of David Windspach from Neuern. He hawks with plumes.

3. Salomon Abraham, from the house of Abraham, 38, wife Rosina 38, son Wolf 8, daughter Clara 11 years. Lives on a herrschaftliche Chaluppen, trades with feathers, leather and cloth, pays 10 Gulden, contributes 15 Gulden, beyond that gains annually about 80 Gulden, lives in Neuern since 14 years. 1724: The house (VII) before 1618 belonged to Abraham Zaparth, 1655 Wolf Zaparth got it, thereafter his son, 1708 whose daughter Radisch married Samuel Abraham from Hroby near Tabor.

4. David Simon, from the house of Simon, 43, wife Rosina, 35, son Daniel 4, daughters: Vögele 14, Rosine 11, Feyle 3, Esther 6 years. Has bought his hereditary Chaluppen, trades in wool, feathers, fabric and cattle. Pays 15 Gulden taxes, contributes 50 Gulden, beyond that gains annually another 215 Gulden. Born here. 1724: Since 1706 the husband of Schönle from Horaschdowitz (Schönle = Rosina?), The same lineage as his brother’s Salomon Daniel. House XV.  

5. Moisis Mayerle, from the house of Jakob, 57, wife Belle 48, son Samuel 24, daughters: Hendl 9, Marie 8 years. Has bought his own hereditary Chaluppen, deals with cloth, fabric, feathers, pays authority 15 Gulden, contributes 6 Gulden, beyond that gains 70 Gulden. Born here.
He is no longer mentioned in 1724; perhaps did he emigrate or die in the meantime.

6. Lebel Winschbach, from the house of Moyses, 42, wife Schendl 25, son Josef 13, daughters: Reßel 16, Vögele 9, Nikele 6 years. Has bought his hereditary Chaluppen, deals in haberdashery goods, is also a butcher, pays authority 15 Gulden, contributes 7 Gulden, beyond that gains 63 Gulden, born here. 1724: “Has established himself in 1702”, married Schönl, father David Winschbach (1646), grandfather Jonas Windspach (before 1618 already in Neuern). House V.

7. Simon Bloch, from the house of Jakob, 40, wife Beile 34, sons: Meier 11, Herschel 1 1/2, daughters: Vegele  9, Schendl 5, Esther 3 years. Has bought his Chaluppen, trades in wool, feathers and various dry goods (“cramerey”), pays 15 Gulden, contributes 30 Gulden, acquires beyond that 104 Gulden, born here.
1724: Has settled with his wife Beyle in 1706. Father Herschl Bloch (1670), grandfather Lazar Bloch (1639), great-grandfather Mayer Bloch (before 1618). (See 15, his brother Samuel Bloch.) His mother, widow of Herschl Bloch, lives with him "in der Herwerckh". (house no. XVII).

8. Joachim Samuel, from the house of Simet, 43, wife Maria 40, sons: Simon 9, Isak 6, daughters: Riffkele 15, Schendel 11, Gittel 4 years.
On a manorial Chaluppen, deals with horses, pays authorities 15 Gulden, contributes 3 Gulden, gains beyond that 50 Gulden; resides here since 19 years. 1724: Is not mentioned.

9. Selig Bloch, from the house of Levi, 52, wife Twere 32, sons: Lazar 22, Mausche 10, Joachim Jakob 1/2, daughters: Esterle 5, Feyl 3 years. On a herrschaftliche (seigniorial?) Chaluppen, a leather merchant and a butcher, pays 15 Gulden, contributes 3 Gulden, gains beyond this 50 Gulden; born here.
1724: Father Moses Bloch (1639), grandfather Mayer Bloch (1618). Married 1694 Droura (can be read also Twere and Obaure), “hawks with feathers'. House no. II.

10. Joachim Hon, from the house of Levi, 33, wife Hendel 35, sons: Eyßig 7, Ely 1/2, daughter Esther 4 years. On a herrschaftliche Chaluppen, is a butcher, pays 15 Gulden, contributes 9 Gulden, Gains beyond this 75 Gulden. Born here.
1724: Father is Elias Hon from Schüttenhofen who married in 1658 Esther, the daughter of J. Mützl, who was a resident of Neuern before 1618. Joachim Hann married 1713 Hanele from Mühlhausen. House no. VIII.

11. Samuel Abraham, from the house of Ruby, 35, wife Minka 25, sons: Schime 6, Salomon 6, daughter Cheile 4 years. On its own Chaluppen, trades with linen and cloth, pays 15 Gulden, contributes 31 Gulden. Gains beyond this 78 Gulden. Lived there for half a year.
1724: Schmule of Hroby, brother of Salomon Abraham of Hroby near Tabor (see under 3.), “hawks with feathers (..)”.

12. Jakob Kopel, from the house of Simet, 42, wife Frometl 38, daughter Reßel 10 years. Has his own Chaluppen, pays 15 Gulden, contributes 2 Gulden, deals with wool and feathers, gains beyond that 30 Gulden. Born here. 1724: Not mentioned.

13. Samuel Joachim, from the house of Simet, 26, wife Belle 28, son Isak 3, daughter Esther 5 years. Has its own Chaluppen, deals in haberdashery goods, pays 10 Gulden, contributes 9 Gulden, gains beyond that 75 Gulden. Resident of here since 3 years
1724: Father Daniel Simon, Mother Feigel, daughter of Isak Winschbach (1636), maternal grandfather Jonas Windspach hand (before 1618).

14. David, from the house of Levi, 26, wife Minka 22, has its own Chaluppen, deals with various things (“Cramerey”), pays 10 Gulden, contributes 6 Gulden, gains beyond that 50 Gulden, resident of here since 2 years.
1724: Not mentioned.

15. Samuel Ploch, from the house of Simet, 33, wife Minka 22, has its own Chaluppen, pays 10 Gulden, contributes 6 Gulden, gains beyond that 40 Gulden, is a butcher, born here.
1724: settled 1706, wife Minkerl, same descent as his brother Simon Bloch (no. 7), house no. II. Note: "Both brothers trade in feathers and various little things."

16. Chayle Witib, 48, son Leb Moyses 16, daughters: Vikele 18, Lidmille 15, Plimele 12, Beyerle 9 years. On a herrschaftliche Chaluppen, pays 15 Gulden, contributes 0. Deals with leather, feathers, gains 25 Gulden.
1724: Not mentioned.
17. Salomon Ploch, from the house of Levi, 46, wife Chaile 35, son Lazar 21, daughters: Belle 13, Selde 8 1/2, Libele 5 years. Has its own Chaluppe, pays 15 Gulden taxes, contributes 5 Gulden, deals with wool and feathers, gains 40 Gulden.
1724: Married since 1694 with Feyle; goes peddling in feathers and other small trade. Belle serves at Bistritz. Father: Lazar Bloch, son of Mayer Bloch (before 1618).

18.  Abrahamin Witib, 36, sons: Joachim 14, Mayerle 10, Abraham 7 years. On its own Chaluppe, pays 10 Gulden, contributes 11 Gulden, deals with feathers, gains 40 Gulden. 1724: Not stated.

19. Samuel Abraham, from the house of Isak, 44, wife Hora 30, daughter Gele 5 years. A schoolmaster/teacher, is paid by the Jewish community annually 30 Gulden, lives here since 2 years; item.

20. Lebel Herschel, from the house of Levi, 23, wife Schendel 22, daughter Vögele 6 months. Schoolmaster/teacher, lives here since 5 years and get also  paid by the Jewish community with annually 30 Gulden.
(…) 1724: Samuel Joachim Peck from Prague (since 1720 in Neuern) was schoolmaster, wife Sara from Neustadtl, children: Abraham Alexander 1, Feyle 5 years. He lived in the house of Salomon Simon.

The Judenfassion of 1724 lists yet the following families:
Jakob Meller, settled here in the year 1705, wife Rosina from Blowitz, children: Judelle 9, Mayer 5, Eva 13 years.
Josef Meller, settled here in the year 1711, wife Frauet from Kuttenplan. Daughters: Rosina 11, Hanele 14 years. Both brothers (are living) in a small house (and) are peddling in feathers. (House no. VI, now building site beside the temple.) Mother: Ryffka, granddaughter of the ancestor Mayer Bloch from 1618, married in 1658 the Jew Meller from Kolinetz.

Abraham Bend from Bieschin, 1714 independent, wife Rikl - daughter of Mayer Windspach, daughter Merl 6 months. Peddles in feathers.

Löbl Simon from Langendörffl, since 1720 independent, wife Judele - daughter of Schmule from Neuern –, daughter Beyla 3 months. Peddles in “purchasing  of the feathers”. With him lives the mother of his wife, Resl, and her sons: Moyses 16, Abraham 10 years.

In Upper Neuern (Kataster 1713): Salomon Daniel, from the house of Simet, 51 years. His wife Esthera 48 years old. Sons: Markus 22 years, Cabrl 2 years. Daughters: Hora 20 years, Prigela 16 years. Lives in his heritage property house, pays authoritiy 15 Gulden, contributes 50 Gulden. Trades with wool, feathers, etc. Earns 150 Gulden. Was born here.

1724: Since 1703 Joachim Johl and then his widow Mory, who in 1723 married Mayer Löbin from Biowitz. She has a maidservant from Radochov, Feyel, 14 years old. "lives from the purchasing of feathers, peddling.”

Village Millik (1724):
Moyses Joachimb from Deschenitz, since 1723, wife Rickel - daughter of Maier Plach from Neuern, son Joachim 3, daughter Rosina 5 years. "Peddles in the villages.”

Village Bistritz (1724):
Abraham Jakob, born at Gisternitz (Jistebnitz near Tabor), was some years distiller at Chudenitz, since 1702 married with Esther from Schwihau. Son Alexander 2, daughters: Miedl 13, Rachl 10, Blumb 5 years. Servant Keckl from Lipkau 22 years. Maidservant Beyla, daugther of Salomon Bloch from Neuern, 16 years. Is distiller at Bistritz and trades somewhat with feathers.

In Deschenitz in 1713 there were four Jewish houses, assembled in a block on the north side of the marketplace in the western corner next to the inn.
In these houses lived the following four Jewish families:

1. Joachim Samuel, from the house of Simet, age 56, his wife Jachet 56, son Jonas 21, daughters: Berl 16, Barke 13, Riffke 10, Schönle 2 years. Lives on his own, from authority bought Chaluppen, deals with fabric and other various goods, pays 19 Gulden 30 Kreuzer, contributes 26 Gulden, beyond that he gains 90 Gulden, has been there for almost 30 years.

2. Adam Israel, from the house of Simet, age 50, wife Eva 50, sons: Israel 28, Jacob 26, Moyses 24, Josef 22, Löbel 20, Laibe 18, Dovidt 16, Solomon 14, Daughter Lißel 9 years, is a distiller, deals with fabric and other various goods. Pays 350 Gulden, contributes 19 Gulden, acquires about that other 50 Gulden.

3. Salomon Moses, from the house of Simmet, 42, wife Estera 28, daughter Marian 12 years. Lives in his own, from authority bought Chaluppe, deals with linen, leather, feathers, pays 14 1/2 Gulden, contributes 8 Gulden, earns about that yet another 50 Gulden, has lived there 26 years.

4. Josef Mayerl, from the house of Levi, wife Feygel, lives on its own, from authority bought Chaluppe, deals with linen, feathers, wool, contributes 8 Gulden, pays 14 ½ Gulden, earns about that yet another 50 Gulden, has lived there for 9 months.

The authorized families of 1799

In 1799, a certain number of Jewish families for each dominion was fixed by the government ; it was controlled and not to be exceeded, because there was a constant increase of Jewish families.
Within each dominium, the post for Jewish families were distributed on the locations where Jews had already settled. The families of the Bistritz dominium started with the country’s number begin 5143, so that each family had a country’s and a dominium´s number. In 1799, in the area of Bistritz, there where 96 such "family posts" or "Familianten", and they were mainly distributed between Neuern, Janowitz, Drosau, Deschenitz and Braunbusch. Neuern had the posts no. 11 – 29, then 64, 78, 80 and 81 : altogether 23 authorized families.
Most Jews had Drosau with 24 posts, followed by Neuern with 23, Janowitz with 10, Deschnitz with 9, Braunbusch with 3 and Bistritz with 2 posts. The remaining families were divided upon smaller places.

In Neuern:
Post 11: Fleischel Samuel (his parents: Abraham Moises and Rachel David). Spouse: Barbara Ploch. Of the sons Samson (born 1791) received the post, Daniel (born 1794) received the post 15 after Salomon Klauber, Abraham (born 1799) "the same" and David (born 1801) was got in 1827 the permit of emigration to Hungary (…). Samson wed in 1816 with Sara Kohner and had the sons Jakob, Abraham, Ignaz, David, Moritz, Leopold and Markus (twins) and Philipp.

Post 12:  Ploch Sara (widow of Samson Ploch), parents unknown. Married 1765, died 1818, sons: Abraham, Moises.

Post 13: Janowitzer  Wolf (Parents: Samuel Janowitzer and Juditha Torscht). Spouse: Amalia N., sons: Isak (born 1789) received the post, Moritz (born 1801) received post No. 16. Isak married in 1811 Sara Hahn (and in) 1816 Amalie Auer; sons: Simon (born 1817) and Markus, who died in 1825.

Post 14: Ploch Samuel (Parents: Seligmann Ploch and mother N.N.). Spouse: Etsher (sic) Kaufmann (married 1755). Sons: Wolf Gabriel (born 1769), received the marriage license on the paternal post and Isak (born 1773), received the marriage license "on the cropping farm." Wolf Gabriel married 1795 Johanna Schwarz, and had sons: Joachim (born 1797), received the family post, married 1816 Eva Janowitzer, sons: Abraham, Moises, Wolf, Hermann, Seligmann, Gabriel, Philipp, Löbel (born 1804) received post 18 and Wolf (died 1830).

Post 15:  Klauber Salomon (parents and spouse unknown, married 1775) died (date unknown) without children. Successor on the post was Fleischl Daniel (from post 11), his wife Susanna Porges (married 1819). Sons: Albert, Josef.

Post 16: Janowitzer Samuel (parents, first wife, day of death unknown). Second wife Esther Leder (married 1806), no sons. Was succeeded on the post by Janowitzer Moritz (from post 13). First wife Rosalia Ploch (married 1823), second wife Rachel Fleischl (married 1825). Sons: Albert, Samuel.

Post 17: Hahn Enoch (parents: Elias Hahn and Golde N.). Wife: Amalia Samuel (married 1784). Sons: Solomon (born 1800) and Joel (born 1803). The former received the post, married 1828 Rosalia Heller. Sons: Elias, Josef, Samuel.

Post 18: Hahn Jakob (parents unknown). Wife Magdalena N. (married 1774), died 1816 without sons. Successor: Ploch Löbel (Parents: Gabriel Ploch and Johanna Schwarz). Married 1829 Rosina Porges. Son Samuel.

Post 19: Löwit Eliazim (parents and wife unknown) no sons, "1805 verlustiget" (he lost the post) (as poor taxpayer). Successor: Klauber Elias (died 1832, parents: Nephtaly Klauber and Libuscha Wiener) married 1806 Sarah Schwarz. Son Hermann (born 1812) received 1832 this post, married 1834 Rebekka Porges, son Josef Eduard (born 1838, died 1839).

Post 20: Windspach Eva (parents unknown, married 1762, died 1816). Her son Samuel was declared "verlustigt”. Successor: Lažansky Abraham from Drosau (Parents: Harschl L. and Barbara Mayer); married 1800 Rebekka Freund, received the marriage license on the crop, 1821 he got the post at Neuern. Sons: Jakob and Löbel.

Post 21: Ploch Seligmann (parents: Küble Ploch and Franziska N.), married 1767 Veronika Kohner. Sons: Israel (born 1777) and Löbel (born 1783). Israel married 1814 Elika Sicher, received the paternal post, died 1835, son Seligmann.

Post 22: Ploch Moises (parents as at No. 21), married 1775 Rachel Alexander. Sons: David 1780, Mändl 1784, Josef 1792, Lazar 1799. Josef received the post No. 52 at Slawikau, David received the paternal post. Married 1823 Klara Hahn, sons: Joachim and Alexander.

Post 23: Klauber Juda (parents: Abraham Joel K. and Esther David) married 1768 Amalie Mändl. Son David received the post, married 1800 Sara Spitzer from Neustadtl, Pilsen region. Sons: 1. Abraham born 1801, married 1825 Susanna Janowitzer, sons: Wolf 1827, Joel 1835 (he gets the) family post. 2. Joel 1804, received 1844 marriage license on his butcher business, 3. Nathan born 1811, was given his own family post. 4. Salomon born 1813, married into the post at P?iwosten, which was transferred to Nahoschitz.

Post 24: Lowitsch Moises from Wollin came in 1781 as a widower to Bistritz, died 1809.

Post 25: Porges Salomon (Parents: Jakob Porges and Rachel N.), married 1788 Abigail Berger.
Son David got his father's family post, married 1814 Barbara Janowitzer,
Son Solomon in 1843 moved to Hungary,
Son Samuel married 1839 Fanni Epstein, née Reichenbaum,
Son Lippmann.

Post 26: Jeiteles Josef (Parents: Bernhard J. and Eva N.), married 1788 Rebekka Daniel, died 1819. Sons: Bernard 1804, Salomon 1807, Wolf 1809, Elia 1812. Bernard married 1838 Eva Klauber; sons: Elias 1839, Josef 1841, Jakob 1845.

Post 27: Wittner Sara (parents unknown, married 1756, 1806 "verlustigt"). Successor: Ploch Ezechiel from Deschenitz. (Parents: Samson Ploch and Barbara Klein), married 1820 Sara Benesch. Sons:Simon 1822 and Markus 1826.

Post 28: Janowitzer Aron (parents and wife unknown, married 1794) relocates about 1806 to Prague. Successor: Freund Josef (parents and wife, Year and day of death unknown.). Successor: Bloch Löbel (Parents: David Wolf Bloch and Rebekka Ofner), married 1814 Katharina Kohn. Son: Salomon Bloch, married 1846 Elisabeth Fleischer, son David.

 Post 29: Ploch Naphthaly from Upper Neuern (Parents: Moises Ploch and mother N.N.), married 1787 Amalia N.,died 1800. Sons: Joachim 1780, David 1798, Nephthaly 1802. Joachim married 1818 Magdalena Porges, sons: Salomon 1821, Hermann 1828.

Post 64: Windspach Markus, Lower Neuern (Parents and wife unknown)
no sons. Successor: Janowsky Joachim (Parents: Moises Abraham J. and Rachel Duschenes), married 1790 Barbara N. Sons: Moritz, Augustin, Josef. "This familiant and his three sons in 1812 converted to catholizism.” Sucessor: Joachims brother Janowsky Wolf, married 1799 Ludmilla Steiner, son Aron, born 1803, 1843 moved to Hungary.

Post 78: Fleischmann Daniel (parents: Moises Joachim Fleischmann and Anna N.), married 1800 Klara Fleischl. Son Fleischmann Joachim married 1825 Elisabetha Kohner, the 1836 Maria Fleischmann. Son Abraham 1844.

Post 80:  Ploch Salomon Löbel (parents: Moises Ploch and Rachel N.), married 1780 Sara Kohner, died 1825. Son Josef Ploch married 1822 Theresia Bäck, sons: Moises 1823, Moritz 1825, Salomon 1827.

Post 84: Fleischel Abraham (Parents: Samuel Fleischl and Barbara Ploch), married 1825 Eva Kohner,; was transferd from Nedraschitz to this (erledigt/frei) post. Sons: Moises 1826, Ignaz 1828, Hermann 1830, Josef 1832, Samuel 1840, Nathan Anton 1847.

In Deschenitz:
Post 46: Löwit Juda, his successor his son Isak Wolf Löwit.
Post 54: Klein Demuth.
Post 55: Ploch Barbara, widow of Moises Ploch in Deschenitz.
Post 56: Schwarz Moises.
Post 57: Schwarz Abraham.
Post 58: Schwarz Israel.
Post 59: Berger Josef.
Post 60: Fleischmann Eliazim.
Post 93: Luft Friedmann, transferred 1834 from region Berau to the domination Bistritz.

In Bistritz:
Post 86: Ploch Mayer.

Post 92: Rubin Nathan, transferred from Teinitzl to Bistritz.
In Millik:
Post 53:  Fleischmann Moises.
It is striking that in 1799 no post existed in Holletitz. There was a brandy distillery of the dominion/rule of Bistritz which stood beside the brick shack, right of the Neuern road to the railway station (…), which usually was operated by a Jew.
1799 in Janowitz there is a post occupied by the Jew David Holletitz. This name indicates, like many other names already mentioned (Janowitz, Neumarkt, Neuern, Österreicher (= Austrian) the former residence and subsequent origin of these families.
The regulation of the numbers of Jewish families forced the larger part of the offspring of each community to severe resolutions. The progress of the era provided resorts which reduced the plight of the later-born. Already the patent from Nov 1st 1781, with which bondage was repealed, freed all subjects – and hence as well the Jews – to choose a craft or skill without permission of authority. This opened new possibilities to all the second sons who hitherto were doomed to singleness or emigration. Farming, trade, art and qualifications as a surgeon became frequent new paths to establish one's own family. Also in the Bistitzer dominium this boon was applied and hence in the year 1809 Isak Ploch in Neuern (post Nr.14) received the marriage license as a farmer, 1844 Joel Klauber (born 1804) from Lower Neuern got the marriage license as a butcher and 1849 Isak, son of Moises Küberl from Drosau got the marriage license as a weaver. Emigration anyhow didn’t stop. In 1812 Lazar Hartmann Drosau emigrated to Hungary, and that without consent of authority.
In 1843 Salomon Porges and Aron Janowsky from Neuern went to Hungary
and one year earlier Löwit Simon from Drosau (…) emigrated to America, perhaps the first resident from our area who dared to cross the great ocean.
There were also cases where in the region, Jews converted to Christianity, as in 1809 Löbl Goldschmidt from Janowitz, then Joachim Hartmann from Drosau who emigrated to Austria and 1812 the Familiant from Neuern Joachim Janowsky, who converted with his three sons. He was married to Ludmila Steiner. In the succession of the conversion, his family post no. 64 became free on which then his brother Wolf advanced.
The privilege of the first born in this time – for the entitlement to marry – was of great importance for every Jew.
And yet once one first-born felt impelled to abdicate all his privileges (…) as it proves a registration in the cadastral register of Janowitz. The first-born son of the Janowitzer protection Jew Moises Kahn, Kötschl, declares on august 4th 1798 "that because of my unfortunate circumstances of health do not allow me to (…) marry, I cede the rights of the first-born to my second-born brother Simon Kahn (…)”.
The document was sealed with the seal of the town of Janowitz and was accepted also from authorities.
How much from Neuern emigrated Jews were attached to their old home and how they still felt as members of their families – even after many decades – shows a letter, which was written in 1928 by Mr. Alexander Fleischl, royal Danish consul in Budapest on the occasion of the erection of a war memorial to his Neuerner fellow countrymen:
"Nevertheless many decades have passed since I as a Child with my parents left (…) the old home, the sense of belonging has not extinguished in me. And even when it is not granted to me to visit the place in person, in which my family lived for decades, every time mentioning of the name Neuern is mentionned, I feel that (…) one has his roots where one self, where ones father and grandfather were born.”

There has always been some distinguished men among the members of the Jewry in Neuern, who did a lot for their community and for the economic uplift of the city.

Temple of Neuern (exterior view)

From the 18th century I would like to mention Abraham Löbl, who is mentioned in 1734 and still in 1742 as a deputy of the Pilsner region and who was in close business connection to count Palm of Bistritz, who engaged himself (…) in Löbls business.
From more recent times: Mr. Dr. med. Benedikt Federer from Neuern was not only an excellent physician, but also in his many years as Municipal representative a promoter of progress, which is the reason why the town nominated him honorary citizen. Dr. Federer didn’t get married. Normally a very silent, short man with a close brown full beard, he was highly esteemed as a speaker. His speeches were brilliant and sparkled with a dry sense of humor. He died in Neuer non October 14th 1902, at the age of 72.
Rabbi Max Reiser was born in 1839 in Hausbrunn, District Malacka, Preßburg county. He was the Rabbi in Neuern from 1876 until his death on January 5th 1913.
He repeatedly held lectures at the Teachers Association of the District Neuern and was also active as a writer. He wrote 3 books:
"Rätsel" in Hebrew and scripture, with German translation for Teachers and Students at school or at home,
"Rabbinic wisdom"- a collection of Talmudic sentences, conversations, stories and maxims for school and home;
"Biedermänner” - Life and rise of the pious and honored men.
In his community, he was an exemplary pastor and educator. He took much pain in the formation of pupils for the Temple Choir. Rabbi Reiser enjoyed great esteem in his community, in which he always and with great success worked for peace and the maintenance of all virtues.
In 1895 Mr. Wilhelm Ekstein from Vienna founded a factory business in Neuern which soon gained reputation in whole Europe : the grinding of optical glasses Wilhelm Ekstein & Co. It soon took an upward move and gained strong influence on the uplift prosperity of the population and of the number of houses in Neuern; so one can say that the increase in prosperity of Neuern began with the foundation of his factory. Mr. Wilhelm Ekstein was a paternal friend to his workers; as first town councilor, he worked for the progress of the community. In recognition of his merits, he was appointed honorary citizen. Together with his wife, he founded the Wilhelm und Regine Ekstein foundation for the poor of Neuern. He died on July 17, 1925
in Neuern at the age of 73.
In 1929 died in the bloom of his life Mr. Wilhelm Katz, steam mill owner in Neuern, a man who during the war was adjutant of the 11th infantry regiment at Gyula and in this influential position did his of fellow countrymen infinitely good. Many of them owe him that they are still alive. In the commune he especially attended the municipal power plant, which he full of farsightedness and joy of entrepreneurs (…) generously extended without burden the commune. So he lifted the commune’s prosperity a lot. Wilhelm Katz, however, was not only a good businessman, but also a well educated man, friend of art and literature. (…)

Temple of Neuern (interior view)

Members of the Jewish community and cemetery

Temple and cemetery
The Jewish community of Neuern at present is made up of the Jewish community and the branch communities of Deschenitz, Janowitz and Drosau. It includes the towns of Neuern, Deschenitz, Janowitz, Drosau, Besin, Eisenstein, Bistritz and Bezdekau. The present headman of the community is the wood dealer Karl Jetter.
Previous headmen:

Eduard Jeiteles 1894-1906,
Eduard Vogel 1906-1911,
David H. Bloch 1911-1917,
Dr. Ignatz Bloch 1917-1920,
Dr. Leopold Goldbach 1920-1926,
Siegfried Bernt 1926-1929,
Franz Stein 1929-1933.

The number of souls of the Jewish Community of Neuern is currently 239, among them 90 taxpayers; the budget in 1930 amounts to K? 35,000.
The Jews of Neuern, Deschenitz and Bistritz always formed a community, which had its rabbi, its cemetery at Neuern and a synagogue in Neuern and Deschenitz.
The date the first temple in Neuernwas built is unknown. Only in 1724 is it mentioned for the first time in a document, but it may have existed already a long time. This first Temple in Neuern stood at the corner of houses X and XII, and must therefore have been a totally insignificant building. It was no longer used after the edification of the new (present) temple in the year 1797, and burned down one year later. In former times Neuern had its own Jewish school, whose teachers took lodgings in different houses. The teacher of the school assumed also the duty of prayer leader. In 1713, Samuel Abraham was Schulmeister and was paid annually 30 Gulden by the Jewish community. Beside him, in 1713, there was a second teacher named Lebel Herschel, who also got 30 Gulden. In 1724, Samuel Joachim Peck from Prague was schoolmaster in Neuern. He lived in the house of Salomon Simon no. X.. In 1734 Mojses Helischau is mentioned as schoolmaster, in 1774 Herschl Löwy Lipmann (1775:Leibmann) is mentioned as “Schulsinger”.
The current Rabbi is Mr. Emil Klauber (since 1921). His predecessors were:

Rabbi Nagel 1865-1873
Rabbi Stern 1873-1876
Rabbi Max Reiser 1876-1913

Rabbi Arpad Hirschberger 1913-1915
Rabbi Schapira 1915-1917
Rabbi A. Beck 1918-1920

The Jewish cemetery at Neuern
is as old as the Jewish Community, which goes back at least to the 15th century. It is located about 1 km south of the present railway station, picturesque on the top of a rocky hill, formerly called "die Lohe". We find here many old gravestones, cut from the local rough and easily weathered mica slate, whose inscriptions can no longer be deciphered. Around 180,0 stones from Kehlheim Marble in a kind of Empire-style came to fashion. And (also) the modern tombstones, high prisms from polished Swedish syenite with golden inscriptions, reflect the artistic taste of our time.
In 1750 the Jewish cemetery became overcrowded and much too small, so the community cared for its enlargement and bought from the citizens Friedrich Böhm and Johann Weyß of Lower Neuern an attached parcel of ten Klafter length and twelve Klafter width. (……) The contract was registered in the “Stadtbuch” (town book) of Neuern which today is the fist volume of the municipal chronic. The purchase contract was signed by "Mayr Abraham Janowitz, Jews judge the Jews of the Community of Neuern”. In 1924, the cemetery was expanded to the east and was provided an entrance gate. (…)

Economic life
The Jewish community of Neuern gained its greatest significance through its versatile economic activities. From ancient times, trade was the only activity of Jews. As merchants they sold “allerlei Cramerey” and haberdashery goods, textiles at annual fairs, Kirtagen and as peddlers going from house to house and from village to village.

(… … …)

One would think that in Neuern, located on an old salt road from Bohemia to Bavaria, trading salt should have been of great importance for the Jews. But it was not so because Jews were strictly excluded from trading in salt. The salt trade in Neuern was a privilege of the commune. It obtained the salt for local want from the imperatorial “Salzstadln” (salt – hayrick ??) at Taus or Klattau. Because the town was selling salt also to out-of-town customers it was deprived of the privilege of selling salt in 1782. (…) Jews weren’t either allowed to trade gunpowder and saltpeter.
On the other side trade in local county products of all kind increased and soon became the exclusive dominium of the Jew’s : bed feathers, sheep wool, raw hides, rabbit fur, flax, yarn, linen, cattle, horses and later cereals. With the cattle trade came along the butcher trade and in 1713 four Jewish butchers are known.
Beside of the economic surplus of the rural population it was the dominum offives of the region, especially of Bistritz (…) which were the most important sources for the purchase of the local products.

(… … …)

The large number of poorer Jews bought the goods in the villages within a large radius and delivered them to the larger traders. One of them, after 1800, was Salomon Bloch of Lower Neuern, who traded hides, raw leather, furs, flax, hemp and other goods especially to Bavaria. He was the biggest trader of the whole area till Pilsen and he traveled to Prague once a month. Still in the 1880s and 1890s people in Neuern narrated from him.
The main trading branch of the Jewry of Neuern formed the trade with bed feathers and sheep wool.

The trading of feathers in Neuern
The small, insignificant town of Neuern soon outdid the royal towns of western Bohemia (Pilsen, Taus, Klattau) in feather trading.
How was it possible?
We have seen that the Jews of the area were the real creators and promoters of this trade. However, the royal towns had an old privilege according to which they didn’t have to tolerate Jews within their walls. They did use this privilege. Hardly did they accept the economic assiduous Jews to stay overnight within their walls at the time of market. Because they could not gain ground here they transferred their action on the grounds of nobility in the periphery and hinterland of these towns. In Neuern they had the near border and important trade routes, easy access options, the promotion of the Lords (…) and the existence of a densely populated area which was needed to work up the feathers and the trade as pedlars.
Since trade with geese and feathers from its beginnings was aimed to the “Reich”, which means towards west, it is easily understandable that these goods were accumulated in the western Bohemia. Here (…) since ever were collected the geese and bales of feathers, the abundances of the country, in order to take its way to Germany. (…) The region of Taus, Neumark and Neuern till Dosau was the main square of the bohemian, later the European trade for bed feathers. Neuern was the centre of this trade. In an earlier edition of Mayer’s Encyclopaedia Neuern is named downright the centre of the European trade in feathers. For the old age and the importance of this trade for West Bohemia speaks the fact that already in the 14th century, under Emperor Charles IV, the town of Taus received the privilege beside of holding a market of two weeks, to export feathers.
(… …)
In Neuern the Jewish Community had to pay 15 Gulden for a special “feather trade tax”. In the middle of the 18th century here Meier Abraham Janowitz (bought house no. XVIII from Khanny Österreicher) ran the largest feather business. (…) (Together with his brother Samuel Abraham Janowitzer – house no. VII –) he founded a trading company in which they affiliated in 1783 also Meiers wife Sorl and his underage son Aron. For the latter they ensured a heritage of 500 Gulden. The company ran under the name "Meier und Samuel Janowitzer " and after Meier’s death under "Samuel und Meier Janowitzer seel. Erben''. It didn’t last long under this name ; already in 1790 Samuel Abraham Janowitzer closed a "firm contract in wool and feather trade" with his two sons Wolf and Abraham for six years. (…) The company was named Samuel Janowitzer and sons. (…)
When Samuel Abraham Janowitz was nominated in 1769 for the post as Judenrichter (Jew’s judge) he asked the authority to not consider him because he had “considerable Kapitalien and his work constrain to travel often and far (…)”. Count Palm was appreciative of his arguments and assigned the office of Bistritz to nominate someone else as judge.
This trade company which worked with – for this time – extraordinary means and span business connections over a major part of Bohemia changed its name then in “Janowitzer, Porges & Co”, later in “Janowitzer & Fleischl”. (…) The present owner, Mr. Alexander Fleischl, is also Royal Danish consul.
Also very old is the company Klauber, today “A. Klaubers Sohn” in Neuern. It conducts a steam cleaning and ships feathers to mail order companies and small national and international stores.
Around 1840 one of the largest feathers stores in Neuern was the Company Porges, Vater & Sohn; for the period around 1800 must be remembered the business in bed feathers in Neuern Hönig Hahn (…). (…) The Neuern feather business took a lively boom after the French Wars and especially after the big fire of Hamburg (1842). Around 1845 from the Neuern area an annual quantity of 10.000 cwt was exported to Germany, Switzerland, Holland and France.
Around 1800 a town in Western Bohemia tried to dispute Neuern its dominating rank in the feather business: Alt- and Neuzedlisch near Tachau, with an old and rich Jewish community. The founder of the house Rothschild in Paris is said to have made efforts to get in contact with a wholesale dealer of Altzedlisch, but without success. Large fires prevented the further expansion of these towns and Neuern left these competitors far behind. The Neuerner Jewish feather merchants, restricted by many illiberal regulations and prevented from travelling and peddling, were forced to look for a way out which they found in engaging the Christian population of the Angel Valley and send them worldwide to sell their products. The business grew and developed well. (…) Soon a network of branches spread over the whole German Empire and the alpine Länder. As the Christian salesmen travelled in company (…) for cases of emergency they had to be able to communicate even in the presence of their customers in a way that was incomprehensible for them. Therefore their patrons, the Jewish business magnates (…) had equipped them with a kind of secret language which vocabulary almost entirely derived from Hebrew. Some snatches/chunkes of this feather trading jargon is still alive in the Neuern idiom.
The sheep wool trade stood in close relationship to the feather trade (…) while feather were the filling of cushions and blankets. (…)
There were sheep flocks in each village and markes at these times. The wool was cleaned and combed in homes, partly spun and worked to stockings and Scherkenstoff (??). The wool that was not consumed in homes was given to the traders, for export. Special licenses were requested for this purpose. In 1768, the Bistritz authority certified that Mayer Abraham Janowitz from Neuern had charged a cart with 14 bags of domestic Bohemian wool. He wanted to carry it “through the electorate Bavaria to Salzburg and Tirol.” Around 1790, the company Samuel Janowitzer & Söhne was the conventionary purchaser of the herrschaftliche wool.

(… … …)

Brothers Samuel Abraham and Meier Abraham Janowitz did a big business in lending, mainly to the glassware producers of the area of the royal free farmers. (…)
Jews rendered good services to the Lords as so-called Hausjuden in various businesses and interventions. The rule of Bistritz regularly used Jews for confidential missions and to resolve difficult tasks. (…)
Other Jews were tenants of herrschaftliche distilleries and potash (…) boiling houses. (… …)
In the past Jews had been the tenants of road charges in many places and also in Neuern.
In Neuern there were four tollgates, one above the houses 296 and 97, the second in Reichsstraße, the third in upper Kirchenstraße, the fourth at house No. 11 in Mühlstraße. (…)
A plague/trouble to all the herrschaftliche tenants was, whether they were innkeepers, miller, had a distillery or tollgates, that in the 18th century they were obligated to take the “Schöpse(??) which were sorted out from the lords for 15 – 20 pennies. Such animals often perished before they were brought home. These tenants were also forced (…) to take the spoiled herrings for 4 Kreuzer the piece. People claimed bitter about it, when in 1770 an imperial commission travelled the area and collected information about the living conditions of the population.
Year 1848 eventually brought the Jews the suspension of all restrictive laws regarding their freedom. They were allowed to live in the royal towns until then closed to them (…) and they could purchase houses and land outside the ghettos, where they had lived constipated in distressful tightness. (…) In 1876 with the opening of the railway line Pilsen – Eisenstein, Neuern was connected to the general rail network. (…) Now the development of the home country grew faster than ever. (…)
In the early 70's, the company Liebig & Co. set up a steam saw and Moses Bloch founded a matches fabric (…) in Neuern. (…) In 1885, the company Joss & Löwenstein (Prague) built a laundry factory in Neuern (branch office, closed down at the end of 1928). Mr. Wilhelm Ekstein, whose wife came from the old Neuern family Fleischl-Janowitzer, transferred in 1895 his grindery of optical glasses from Vienna to Neuern. In 1902, Mr. Siegfried Bloch (now Bernt) founded his Gabelwerk (fork fabric?), the so-called iron factory at the Neuern railway station. Later in 1925 came along the laundry factories of “Paul Stein & Söhne” and in 1929 of Siegmund Epstein. The grain trade to Bavaria was carried on by Josef Bloch & Söhne and (…) (equally) trade in wood (Karl Jetter, sawmill Siegmund Bernt). Over the past century the old bed feather industry of “A. Klaubners son”, then Otto Fleischl had adapted to modern conditions and had developed into a modern business. All these Neuern companies had big foreign and sometimes overseas markets. The fact that they had directed the flow of money to Neuern fed many families and contributed to the boom of boom town. While other towns dropped behind in their development, the number of houses in Neuern doubled between 1900 and 1930 and tripled since 1860.


Hereunder are listed some writings of the author which relate to this issue:
Die Neuerner Häuser und ihre Geschichte (The Neuern houses and their history)
Aus Neuerns Vergangenheit (From Neuerns past)
(Both in the festschrift for the opening of the new city hall in Neuern, 1907; published by the town commune of Neuern)
Landes- und Volkskunde der Tschechoslowakischen Republik, 2. edition, 400 pp with
fig. and maps, published by P. Sollore successor, Reichenberg.
Aus dem Neumarker Landestore. Die Volkskunde eines Aufklärers. Schriften zur Volk
skunde des mittleren Böhmerwaldes und< des Prager Ghettos von Georg Leopold Weisel (1804 – 1873), gesammelt und eingeleitet von Josef Blau. Published by Franz Kraus, Reichenberg